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MC Hero performing rhythmic rhyming known as ' in Huntsville, Alabama. Hip hop music, also called hip-hop or rap music, is a developed in the by inner-city in the 1970s which consists of a stylized rhythmic music that commonly accompanies, a rhythmic and rhyming speech that is chanted. It developed as part of culture, a defined by four key stylistic elements: /, / with turntables,, and. Other elements include beats or from records (or ), and rhythmic. While often used to refer solely to rapping, 'hip hop' more properly denotes the practice of the. The term hip hop music is sometimes used synonymously with the term rap music, though rapping is not a required component of hip hop music; the genre may also incorporate other elements of, including DJing,, scratching, beatboxing, and. Hip hop as both a musical genre and a culture was formed during the 1970s when became increasingly popular in, particularly among, often youth residing in the.

At block parties DJs played breaks of popular songs using two turntables and a to be able to play breaks from two copies of the same record, alternating from one to the other and extending the 'break'. Hip hop's early evolution occurred as sampling technology and became widely available and affordable. Turntablist techniques such as and developed along with the breaks and Jamaican, a chanting vocal style, was used over the beats.

Developed as a vocal style in which the artist speaks or chants along rhythmically with an instrumental or synthesized. Notable artists at this time include,,,,,,,,,,, and. 's 1979 song ' is widely regarded to be the first hip hop record to gain widespread popularity in the mainstream.

The 1980s marked the diversification of hip hop as the genre developed more complex styles. Prior to the 1980s, hip hop music was largely confined within the United States. However, during the 1980s, it began to spread to music scenes in dozens of countries, many of which mixed hip hop with local styles to create new subgenres.

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Was the second wave of hip hop music, originating in 1983–84 with the early records of and. The period was an innovative period between the mid-1980s and the early 1990s. Notable artists from this era include the,,, and,,,,,,,, and. Is a of hip hop that often focuses on the violent lifestyles and impoverished conditions of inner-city African-American youth.,,,, and the are key founding artists, known for mixing the political and social commentary of with the criminal elements and crime stories found in gangsta rap. In the style, dominated mainstream hip hop for several years during the 1990s with artists such as and. In the early to mid 1990s was dominated by the Afrocentric and of the posse as well as the of artists such as,, and. East Coast hip hop also had gangsta rap musicians such as and.

In the 1990s, hip hop began to diversify with other regional styles emerging, such as and. At the same time, hip hop continued to be assimilated into other genres of popular music, examples being (e.g.:, ) and (e.g.:, ). Hip hop became a best-selling genre in the mid-1990s and the top selling music genre by 1999.

The popularity of hip hop music continued through the 2000s, with hip hop influences also increasingly finding their way into mainstream pop. The United States also saw the success of regional styles such as (e.g.:, the ), a Southern genre that emphasized the beats and music more than the lyrics. Starting in 2005, sales of hip hop music in the United States began to severely wane. During the mid-2000s, secured a place in the mainstream, due in part to the crossover success of artists such as and.

During the late 2000s and early 2010s, rappers such as,, and were the most popular rappers. During the 2010s, rappers such as,,, and all have been extremely popular., a subgenre of hip hop, also has been popular during the 2010s with hip hop artists and hip hop music groups such as,, and. Contents • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Origin of the term The creation of the term is often credited to Keith Cowboy, with. However,, Keith Cowboy, and used the term when the music was still known as. It is believed that Cowboy created the term while teasing a friend who had just joined the U.S.

Army, by the words 'hip/hop/hip/hop' in a way that mimicked the cadence of soldiers marching. Cowboy later worked the 'hip hop' cadence into a part of his stage performance, which was quickly used by other artists such as in '. Founder is credited with first using the term to describe the in which the music belonged; although it is also suggested that it was a derogatory term to describe the type of music. The first use of the term in print was in, by Steven Hager, later author of a 1984 history of hip hop. 1970s Origins Hip hop as music and culture formed during the 1970s in New York City from the multicultural exchange between African-American youth from the United States and young immigrants and children of immigrants from countries in the Caribbean. Hip hop music in its infancy has been described as an outlet and a voice for the disenfranchised youth of marginalized backgrounds and low-income areas, as the hip hop culture reflected the social, economic and political realities of their lives. Many of the people who helped establish hip hop culture, including,,, and were of or origin.

It is hard to pinpoint the exact musical influences that most affected the sound and culture of early hip hop because of the multicultural nature of New York City. Hip hop's early pioneers were influenced by a mix of music from their cultures and the cultures they were exposed to as a result of the diversity of U.S. New York City experienced a heavy Jamaican hip hop influence during the 1990s. This influence was brought on by cultural shifts particularly because of the heightened immigration of Jamaicans to New York City and the American-born Jamaican youth who were coming of age during the 1990s. Is recognized as one of the earliest hip hop DJs and artists In the 1970s, were increasingly popular in New York City, particularly among African-American, Caribbean and Latino youth residing in the. Block parties incorporated DJs, who played popular of music, especially and. Due to the positive reception, DJs began isolating the breaks of popular songs.

This technique was common in Jamaican, and was largely introduced into New York by immigrants from the Caribbean, including, one of the pioneers of hip hop. Because the percussive breaks in funk, soul and records were generally short, Herc and other DJs began using two turntables to extend the breaks. Herc created the blueprint for hip hop music and culture by building upon the Jamaican tradition of impromptu, a spoken type of boastful poetry and speech over music. On August 11, 1973, DJ Kool Herc was the DJ at his sister's back-to-school party.

He extended the beat of a record by using two record players, isolating the percussion 'breaks' by using a to switch between the two records. Herc's experiments with making music with record players became what we now know as breaking or '. A second key musical element in hip hop music is emceeing (also called MCing or rapping). Emceeing is the rhythmic spoken delivery of and wordplay, delivered at first without accompaniment and later done over a. This spoken style was influenced by the style of 'capping', a performance where men tried to outdo each other in originality of their language and tried to gain the favor of the listeners.

The basic elements of hip hop—boasting raps, rival 'posses' (groups), uptown 'throw-downs', and political and social commentary—were all long present in African American music. MCing and rapping performers moved back and forth between the predominance of 'toasting' songs packed with a mix of boasting, 'slackness' and sexual innuendo and a more topical, political, socially conscious style. The role of the MC originally was as a for a DJ dance event.

The MC would introduce the DJ and try to pump up the audience. The MC spoke between the DJ's songs, urging everyone to get up and dance.

MCs would also tell jokes and use their energetic language and enthusiasm to rev up the crowd. Eventually, this introducing role developed into longer sessions of spoken, rhythmic wordplay, and rhyming, which became rapping. By 1979 hip hop music had become a mainstream genre.

It spread across the world in the 1990s with controversial 'gangsta' rap. Herc also developed upon, where the breaks of songs—the part most suited to dance, usually percussion-based—were isolated and repeated for the purpose of all-night dance parties. This form of music playback, using hard funk and rock, formed the basis of hip hop music.

Campbell's announcements and exhortations to dancers would lead to the syncopated, rhymed spoken accompaniment now known as rapping. He dubbed his dancers 'break-boys' and 'break-girls', or simply and b-girls. According to Herc, 'breaking' was also street slang for 'getting excited' and 'acting energetically'. With DJ Yutaka of in 2004 DJs such as,, and refined and developed the use of, including.

The approach used by Herc was soon widely copied, and by the late 1970s, DJs were releasing records where they would rap to the beat. Popular tunes included 's ' and The 's '. Herc and other DJs would connect their equipment to power lines and perform at venues such as public basketball courts and at 1520 Sedgwick Avenue, Bronx, New York, now officially a historic building. The equipment consisted of numerous speakers, turntables, and one or more microphones. By using this technique, DJs could create a variety of music, but according to Rap Attack by David Toop 'At its worst the technique could turn the night into one endless and inevitably boring song'., a rapper-lyricist with Pete DJ Jones, is often credited with being the first rap lyricist to call himself an 'MC'. Were prevalent in the poverty of the South Bronx, and much of the graffiti, rapping, and at these parties were all artistic variations on the competition and one-upmanship of street gangs. Sensing that gang members' often violent urges could be turned into creative ones, Afrika Bambaataa founded the, a loose confederation of street-dance crews, graffiti artists, and rap musicians.

By the late 1970s, the culture had gained media attention, with Billboard magazine printing an article titled 'B Beats Bombarding Bronx', commenting on the local phenomenon and mentioning influential figures such as Kool Herc. The saw widespread looting, arson, and other citywide disorders especially in the where a number of looters stole DJ equipment from electronics stores. As a result, the hip hop genre, barely known outside of the Bronx at the time, grew at an astounding rate from 1977 onward. 's house parties gained popularity and later moved to outdoor venues in order to accommodate more people. Hosted in parks, these outdoor parties became a means of expression and an outlet for teenagers, where 'instead of getting into trouble on the streets, teens now had a place to expend their pent-up energy.' Tony Tone, a member of the, stated that 'hip hop saved a lot of lives'.

For inner-city youth, participating in hip hop culture became a way of dealing with the hardships of life as minorities within America, and an outlet to deal with the risk of violence and the rise of gang culture. MC Kid Lucky mentions that 'people used to against each other instead of fighting'. Inspired by DJ Kool Herc, Afrika Bambaataa created a street organization called, centered around hip hop, as a means to draw teenagers out of gang life, drugs and violence. The lyrical content of many early rap groups focused on social issues, most notably in the seminal track 'The Message' by, which discussed the realities of life in the housing projects. 'Young black Americans coming out of the civil rights movement have used hip hop culture in the 1980s and 1990s to show the limitations of the.'

Hip hop gave young African Americans a voice to let their issues be heard; 'Like rock-and-roll, hip hop is vigorously opposed by conservatives because it romanticises violence, law-breaking, and gangs'. It also gave people a chance for financial gain by 'reducing the rest of the world to consumers of its social concerns.' In late 1979, of took of to such an event, as the main backing track used was the break from Chic's '. The new style influenced Harry, and Blondie's later hit single from 1981 ' became the first major single containing hip hop elements by a white group or artist to hit number one on the U.S.

—the song itself is usually considered and fuses heavy elements, but there is an extended rap by Harry near the end. The Bronx, a venue used by Kool Herc that is often considered the birthplace of hip hop in 1973 Hip hop's early evolution into a form distinct from R&B also, not coincidentally, occurred around the time that sampling technology and drum-machines became widely available to the general public at a cost that was affordable to the average consumer—not just professional studios.

Drum-machines and samplers were combined in machines that came to be known as 's or ', early examples of which would include the. The first sampler that was broadly adopted to create this new kind of music was the used in combination with the drum machine. Mellotrons and Linn's were succeeded by the, in the late 1980s.

Turntablist techniques – such as rhythmic ' (pushing a record back and forth while the needle is in the groove to create new sounds and, an approach attributed to ), and/or, and – eventually developed along with the percussion breaks, creating a musical or base that could be rapped over in a manner similar to. As well, the art of Jamaican, a style of talking or chanting into a microphone, often in a boastful style, while beats play over a, was an important influence on the development of hip hop music.

Toasting is another influence found in Jamaican. Boxer, as an influential African-American, was widely covered in the media.

Ali influenced several elements of hip hop music. Both in the boxing ring and in media interviews, Ali became known in the 1960s for being 'rhyming trickster' in the 1960s. Ali used a ' delivery' for his comments, which included 'boasts, comical, [and] the endless quotabl[e]' lines. According to, his ' skills' (a reference to a type of vocal improvisation in which lyrics are recited with no particular subject or structure) and his 'rhymes, flow, and ' would 'one day become typical of MCs' like and, the latter citing Ali as an influence. Hip hop music in its infancy has been described as an outlet and a 'voice' for the disenfranchised youth of low-income and marginalized economic areas, as the hip hop culture reflected the social, economic and political realities of their lives. Introduction of rapping, also referred to as or emceeing, is a vocal style in which the artist speaks lyrically and rhythmically, in rhyme and verse, generally to an instrumental or synthesized.

Beats, almost always in 4/4, can be created by and/or sequencing portions of other songs by a. They also incorporate synthesizers, drum machines, and live bands. Rappers may write, memorize, or and perform their works or to a beat. Hip hop music predates the introduction of rapping into hip hop culture, and rap vocals are absent from many hip hop tracks, such as ' by; ' by; 'Al-Naafiysh (The Soul)' and 'We're Rocking the Planet' by; and 'Destination Earth'. However, the majority of the genre has been accompanied by rap vocals, such as the influenced electro hip hop group.

Female rappers appeared on the scene in the late 1970s and early 80s, including Bronx artist MC, member of the, credited with being the first female MC and, a hip hop trio signed to, the first all female group to release a rap record,. [ ] The roots of rapping are found in and ultimately, particularly that of the of West African culture. The African-American traditions of,, and all influence hip hop music, as well as the patterns of African and African-American religious ceremonies. Soul singer, and musical 'comedy' acts such as and are often considered 'godfathers' of hip hop music. [ ] Within New York City, performances of poetry and music by artists such as, and had a significant impact on the post-civil rights era of the 1960s and 1970s, and thus the social environment in which hip hop music was created. DJ Kool Herc and provided an influence on the vocal style of rapping by delivering simple verses over funk music breaks, after party-goers showed little interest in their previous attempts to integrate reggae-infused into musical sets.

DJs and would often add call and response chants, often consisting of a basic chorus, to allow the performer to gather his thoughts (e.g. 'one, two, three, y'all, to the beat'). Later, the MCs grew more varied in their vocal and rhythmic delivery, incorporating brief rhymes, often with a sexual or scatological theme, in an effort to differentiate themselves and to entertain the audience. These early raps incorporated the dozens, a product of African-American culture. Kool Herc & the Herculoids were the first hip hop group to gain recognition in New York, but the number of MC teams increased over time. Often these were collaborations between former, such as 's —now an international organization., a rapper with The is often credited with being the first rap lyricist to call himself an 'MC'. During the early 1970s arose during block parties, as b-boys and b-girls got in front of the audience to dance in a distinctive and frenetic style.

The style was documented for release to a worldwide audience for the first time in documentaries and movies such as,, and. The term 'B-boy' was coined by DJ Kool Herc to describe the people who would wait for the section of the song, getting in front of the audience to dance in a distinctive, frenetic style.

Although there were many early MCs that recorded solo projects of note, such as, and, the frequency of solo artists did not increase until later with the rise of soloists with stage presence and drama, such as. Most early hip hop was dominated by groups where collaboration between the members was integral to the show.

An example would be the early hip hop group, who performed in such a manner on in 1981. Influence of disco. Used disco band 's ' as the source of beats for their 1979 hip hop hit '. Pictured is Chic at a 2012 concert. Hip hop music was both influenced by, as disco also emphasized the key role of the in creating tracks and mixes for dancers. As well, hip hop from the late 1970s used disco tracks as beats. At the same time, hip hop music was also a backlash against certain subgenres of late 1970s disco.

While the early disco was African-American and -created developed by DJs and producers for the dance club subculture, by the late 1970s, disco airwaves were dominated by mainstream, expensively -produced disco songs. According to, the early days of hip hop were characterized by divisions between fans and detractors of disco music. Hip hop had largely emerged as 'a direct response to the watered down, Europeanised, disco music that permeated the airwaves'.

The earliest hip hop was mainly based on hard loops sourced from vintage funk records. However, by 1979, disco instrumental loops/tracks had become the basis of much hip hop music. This genre was called 'disco rap'. Ironically, the rise of hip hop music also played a role in the eventual decline in disco's popularity. The disco sound had a strong influence on early hip hop music. Most of the early rap/hip-hop songs were created by isolating existing disco bass-guitar and dubbing over them with MC rhymes.

Used 's ' as the foundation for their 1979 hit ', generally considered to be the song that first popularized rap music in the United States and around the world. In 1982, released the single ', which incorporated elements from 's ' and 'Numbers' as well as 's 'Riot in Lagos'. The Planet Rock sound also spawned a trend,, which included songs such as 's 'Play at Your Own Risk' (1982), C Bank's 'One More Shot' (1982), 's 'Club Underworld' (1984), 's ' (1983), 's 'I.O.U.' (1983), 's 'Freak-a-Zoid' (1983), 's ' (1984). DJ Pete Jones, Eddie Cheeba,, and were disco-influenced hip hop DJs. Their styles differed from other hip hop musicians who focused on rapid-fire rhymes and more complex rhythmic schemes., Paul Winley,, and were all members of third s latter group. In emerged as a reaction against disco and eventually incorporated characteristics of hip hop during the early 1980s.

The DJ-based genre of behaved similarly, eventually evolving into underground styles known as in Chicago and in. Transition to recording. The earliest hip hop music was performed live, at house parties and block party events, and it was not recorded. Prior to 1979, recorded hip hop music consisted mainly of recordings of live party shows and early hip hop by DJs. Puerto Rican is credited as the first hip hop DJ to create a 'mixed plate,' or mixed dub recording, when, in 1977, he combined sound bites, special effects and paused beats to technically produce a sound recording.

The first hip hop record is widely regarded to be 's ', from 1979. However, much controversy surrounds this assertion as some regard ' by, which was released a few weeks before 'Rapper's Delight', as a rap record. There are various other claimants for the title of first hip hop record. By the early 1980s, all the major elements and techniques of the hip hop genre were in place, and by 1982, the electronic (electro) sound had become the trend on the street and in dance clubs. New York City radio station WKTU featured 's ',' in a commercial to promote the station's signature sound of emerging hip hop Though not yet mainstream, hip hop had begun to permeate the music scene outside of New York City; it could be found in cities as diverse as, Los Angeles,,,,,,,,,,,, and Toronto. Indeed, ' (1979), the first hip hop record released by a female group, and the second single released by, was performed by, a group from which featured.

Despite the genre's growing popularity, was, for many years, the only city whose contributions could be compared to New York City's. Hip hop music became popular in Philadelphia in the late 1970s. The first released record was titled 'Rhythm Talk',. The had dubbed Philadelphia the 'Graffiti Capital of the World' in 1971. Philadelphia native DJ recorded 'To the Beat Y'All' in 1979, and became the first female solo hip hop artist to record music., starting in 1984 and also from Philadelphia, began creating a style that would later be known as.

Who is also a, manipulating a in England in 2005. The 1980s marked the diversification of hip hop as the genre developed more complex styles. New York City became a veritable laboratory for the creation of new hip hop sounds. Early examples of the diversification process can be heard in tracks such as Grandmaster Flash's ' (1981), a single consisting entirely of sampled tracks as well as 's ' (1982), and 's ',' (1982) which signified the fusion of hip hop music with. In addition, & 's 'Beat Bop' (1983) was a 'slow jam' which had a influence with its use of and as texture and playful sound effects. ',' by (1983), (produced and written by and Richard Scher) described as a 'cornerstone of early 80's beatbox afrofuturism,' by the UK paper,, introduced social commentary from a sci-fi perspective. In the 1970s, hip hop music typically used samples from funk and later, from disco.

The mid-1980s marked a paradigm shift in the development of hip hop, with the introduction of samples from, as demonstrated in the albums and. Hip hop prior to this shift is characterized as. In the early part of the decade, became the first aspect of hip hop culture to reach Japan, Australia and South Africa.

In South Africa, the breakdance crew established the practice before beginning to rap later in the decade. Musician and presenter became France's first black TV presenter with his show which screened on TF1 during 1984, a first for the genre worldwide.

Sidney is considered the father of French hip hop. Helped launch other French hip hop stars including, whose 1984 album Paname City Rappin' along with compilations Rapattitude 1 and 2 contributed to a general awareness of hip hop in France.

Hip hop has always kept a very close relationship with the Latino community in New York. And the were among early innovators from, combining English and Spanish in their lyrics.

Recorded their first song under the label 'Disco Dreams' in 1981, while from Los Angeles began his career in 1982. Was formed in 1988 in the suburb of South Gate outside Los Angeles when (born in Havana) and his younger brother Ulpiano Sergio () moved from Cuba to South Gate with his family in 1971. They teamed up with DVX from Queens (New York), Lawrence Muggerud () and Louis Freese (), a Mexican/Cuban-American native of Los Angeles. After the departure of 'Ace' to begin his solo career, the group adopted the name of named after a street running through a neighborhood nearby in South Los Angeles. Japanese hip hop is said to have begun when Hiroshi Fujiwara returned to Japan and started playing hip hop records in the early 1980s.

Japanese hip hop generally tends to be most directly influenced by old school hip hop, taking the era's catchy beats, dance culture, and overall fun and carefree nature and incorporating it into their music. Hip hop became one of the most commercially viable mainstream music genres in Japan, and the line between it and pop music is frequently blurred. New school hip hop. Was a key performer in new school hip hop. The new school of hip hop was the second wave of hip hop music, originating in 1983–84 with the early records of and. As with the hip hop preceding it (which subsequently became known as ), the new school came predominately from New York City.

The new school was initially characterized in form by -led minimalism, with influences from, a hip hop 'metal music for the 80's-a hard-edge ugly/beauty trance as desperate and stimulating as New York itself.' It was notable for taunts and boasts about rapping, and socio-political commentary, both delivered in an aggressive, self-assertive style. In image as in song its artists projected a tough, cool, street attitude. These elements contrasted sharply with the funk and disco-influenced hip hop groups, whose pre-1984 music was characterized by novelty hits, live bands, synthesizers and 'party rhymes' (not all artists prior to 1984 had these styles). New school artists made shorter songs that could more easily gain radio play, and they produced more cohesive LP albums than their old school counterparts. By 1986, their releases began to establish the hip-hop album as a fixture of mainstream music.

Hip hop music became commercially successful, as exemplified by the ' 1986 album, which was the first rap album to hit No. 1 on the Billboard charts. Golden age hip hop. Main article: Hip hop's 'golden age' (or 'golden era') is a name given to a period in mainstream hip hop, produced between the mid-1980s and the early 1990s, which is characterized by its diversity, quality, innovation and influence.

There were strong themes of and political militancy in golden age hip hop lyrics. The music was experimental and the drew on eclectic sources. There was often a strong in the music. The artists and teams most often associated with this phrase are,,,,,, and the. The golden age is noted for its innovation – a time 'when it seemed that every new single reinvented the genre' according to.

Referring to 'hip-hop in its golden age', 's editor-in-chief Sia Michel says, 'there were so many important, groundbreaking albums coming out right about that time', and 's adds: 'The thing that made that era so great is that nothing was contrived. Everything was still being discovered and everything was still innovative and new'. Writer William Jelani Cobb says 'what made the era they inaugurated worthy of the term golden was the sheer number of stylistic innovations that came into existence. In these golden years, a critical mass of mic prodigies were literally creating themselves and their art form at the same time'. The specific time period that the golden age covers varies. States, 'the 'Golden Age' of hip-hop music: The '80s'. Gangsta rap and West Coast hip hop.

” —,, 1992 Gangsta rap is a of hip hop that reflects the violent lifestyles of inner-city American black youths. Gangsta is a pronunciation of the word. The genre was pioneered in the mid-1980s by rappers such as and, and was popularized in the later part of the 1980s by groups like. Ice-T released ', which is often regarded as the first gangsta rap song, in 1986. After the national attention and controversy that Ice-T and N.W.A created in the late 1980s and early 1990s, gangsta rap became the most commercially lucrative subgenre of hip hop.

N.W.A is the group most frequently associated with the founding of gangsta rap. Their lyrics were more violent, openly confrontational, and shocking than those of established rap acts, featuring incessant profanity and, controversially, use of the word '. These lyrics were placed over rough, rock guitar-driven beats, contributing to the music's hard-edged feel.

The first blockbuster gangsta rap album was N.W.A's, released in 1988. Straight Outta Compton would establish as a vital genre, and establish Los Angeles as a legitimate rival to hip hop's long-time capital, New York City. Straight Outta Compton sparked the first major controversy regarding hip hop lyrics when their song ' earned a letter from Assistant Director, Milt Ahlerich, strongly expressing 's resentment of the song.

Controversy surrounded Ice-T's album, in particular over its song '. The song was intended to speak from the viewpoint of a criminal getting revenge on racist, brutal cops. Ice-T's rock song infuriated government officials, the and various police advocacy groups. Consequently, refused to release Ice-T's upcoming album because of the controversy surrounding 'Cop Killer'.

Ice-T suggested that the furor over the song was an overreaction, telling journalist Chuck Philips '.they've done movies about nurse killers and teacher killers and student killers. [Actor] blew away dozens of cops as. But I don't hear anybody complaining about that.' In the same interview, Ice-T suggested to Philips that the misunderstanding of Cop Killer and the attempts to censor it had racial overtones: 'The Supreme Court says it's OK for a white man to burn a cross in public. But nobody wants a black man to write a record about a cop killer.' The subject matter inherent in gangsta rap more generally has caused controversy.

The White House administrations of both and criticized the genre. 'The reason why rap is under attack is because it exposes all the contradictions of American culture.What started out as an underground art form has become a vehicle to expose a lot of critical issues that are not usually discussed in American politics. The problem here is that the White House and wanna-bes like Bill Clinton represent a political system that never intends to deal with inner city urban chaos,' Sister Souljah told The Times. Due to the influence of Ice T and N.W.A, gangsta rap is often viewed as an originally West Coast phenomenon, despite the contributions of East Coast acts like in shaping the genre. 1990s Mainstream breakthrough. Of performing in 1991.

In 1990, 's was a significant success with music critics and consumers. Blitzkrieg Commander Rulebook Pdf Printer more. The album played a key role in hip hop's mainstream emergence in 1990, dubbed by editor Paul Grein as 'the year that rap exploded'. In a 1990 article on its commercial breakthrough, Janice C. Thompson of wrote that hip hop 'has grown into the most exciting development in in more than a decade.' Thompson noted the impact of Public Enemy's 1989 single ', rapper 's single being the best-selling single of 1989, and that at the time of her article, nearly a third of the songs on the were hip hop songs. In a similar 1990 article, of the put hip hop music's commercial emergence into perspective: In 1990, also while working with the rap group Snap!, Ronald 'Bee-Stinger' Savage a former member of the Zulu Nation is credited for carving the term 'Six elements of the Hip Hop Movement' by being inspired by Public Enemy's recordings. The 'Six Elements Of The Hip Hop Movement' are: Consciousness Awareness, Civil Rights Awareness, Activism Awareness, Justice, Political Awareness, Community Awareness in music.

Is known as the Son of The Hip Hop Movement. It was 10 years ago that 's ' became the first rap single to enter the national Top 20.

Who ever figured then that the music would even be around in 1990, much less produce attractions that would command as much pop attention as Public Enemy and? 'Rapper's Delight' was a novelty record that was considered by much of the pop community simply as a lightweight offshoot of disco—and that image stuck for years.

Occasional records—including 's ' in 1982 and 's ' in 1984—won critical approval, but rap, mostly, was dismissed as a passing fancy—too repetitious, too one dimensional. Yet rap didn't go away, and an explosion of energy and imagination in the late 1980s leaves rap today as arguably the most vital new street-oriented sound in pop since the birth of rock in the 1950s. ” —,, 1990 hit mainstream success with the multi platinum album.

The record reached #1 and the first single, ' charted on the top ten of the. MC Hammer became one of the most successful rappers of the early nineties and one of the first household names in the genre. The album raised to a new level of popularity.

It was the first hip-hop album by the for sales of over ten million. It remains one of the genre's all-time best-selling albums. To date, the album has sold as many as 18 million units. Released in 1990, ' by was the first hip hop single to top the in the U.S. It also reached number one in the UK, Australia among others and has been credited for helping diversify hip hop by introducing it to a mainstream audience.

In 1992, released. As well as helping to establish West Coast gangsta rap as more commercially viable than East Coast hip hop, this album founded a style called, which soon came to dominate West Coast hip hop. The style was further developed and popularized by 's 1993 album. However, hip hop was still met with resistance from black radio, including radio stations. Said in 1990, 'Black radio [stations] hated rap from the start and there's still a lot of resistance to it'. Despite the lack of support from some black radio stations, hip hop became a best-selling music genre in the mid-1990s and the top selling music genre by 1999 with 81 million CDs sold.

By the late 1990s hip hop was artistically dominated by the, and. The Beastie Boys continued their success throughout the decade crossing color lines and gaining respect from many different artists. Record labels based out of,, and also gained fame for their local scenes. The scene was also notable, with the fast vocal styles from artists such as,, and. By the end of the decade, hip hop was an integral part of popular music, and many American pop songs had hip hop components. West rivalry.

This graffiti art is a tribute to West Coast rapper, who was killed in a drive-by shooting. The East Coast–West Coast hip hop rivalry was a feud from 1991 to 1997 between artists and fans of the and scenes in the United States, especially from 1994 to 1997. Focal points of the feud were East Coast-based rapper (and his New York-based label, ) and West Coast-based rapper (and his Los Angeles-based label, ), who were both fatally shot following drive-by shootings by unknown assailants in 1997 and 1996, respectively. East Coast hip hop. Main article: In the early 1990s East Coast hip hop was dominated by the posse which was loosely composed of with producer,, the, as well as their loose affiliates,, and the less successful &. Although originally a 'daisy age' conception stressing the positive aspects of life, darker material (such as De La Soul's thought-provoking 'Millie Pulled a Pistol on Santa') soon crept in. Artists such as (particularly for ) &,,,, had a more overtly militant pose, both in sound and manner.

In the early 1990s, the revitalized the New York hip hop scene by pioneering an East coast equivalent in intensity to what was being produced on the West Coast. According to Allmusic, the production on two albums, and (1996), are 'indebted' to RZA's early production with Wu-Tang Clan. At the Virgin Festival in 2007. The success of artists such as and during 1994–95 cemented the status of the East Coast during a time of West Coast dominance. In a March 2002 issue of, referred to 1994 as 'a renaissance of New York [City] Hip-Hop.' The productions of, particularly for, became influential with artists such as due to the combination of somewhat detached instrumental loops, highly compressed and processed drums and lyrical content.

Wu-Tang solo albums such as 's, 's, and 's are now viewed as classics along with Wu-Tang 'core' material. The clan's base extended into further groups called 'Wu-affiliates'. Producers such as (primarily for but also for other affiliated artists such as ), (With and supplying beats for many others),,, and supplying beats for numerous MCs regardless of location. Albums such as 's, 's and 's are made up of beats from this pool of producers.

The rivalry between the East Coast and the West Coast rappers eventually turned personal. Later in the decade the business acumen of the tested itself against and his and, on the West Coast,. The mid to late 1990s saw a generation of rappers such as the members of such as the late and.

On the East Coast, although the 'big business' end of the market dominated matters commercially the late 1990s to early 2000s saw a number of relatively successful East Coast indie labels such as (with whom and Talib Kweli garnered success) and later. The history of the two labels is intertwined, the latter having been started by of in reaction to the former, and offered an outlet for more underground artists such as,,,, and. Other acts such as the Hispanic and turned MC met with differing degrees of success. West Coast hip hop.

After broke up, (a former member) released in 1992, which peaked at #1 on the R&B/hip hop chart, #3 on the pop chart and spawned a #2 pop single with '.' The Chronic took West Coast rap in a new direction, influenced strongly by artists, melding smooth and easy funk beats with slowly drawled lyrics.

This came to be known as and dominated mainstream hip hop for several years through a roster of artists on, including, whose double disc album was a big hit with hit songs ' and ', [ ] and, whose included the songs ' and ', both top ten hits. As the Los Angeles-based label built an empire around,, and the rapper-actor. It also entered into a rivalry with New York City's. (See the article on the.) Detached from this scene were other artists such as, as well as more underground artists such as the collective ( and amongst others),,,, and earlier represented a return to hip hop roots of sampling and well planned rhyme schemes. Diversification of styles.

The rapper Scarface from the southern US group. In the 1990s, hip hop began to diversify with other regional styles emerging on the national scene. Became popular in the early 1990s. The first Southern rappers to gain national attention were the out of Houston, Texas. Southern rap's roots can be traced to the success of Geto Boy's in 1989, the produced in 1990, and in 1991.

The Houston area also produced other artists that pioneered the early southern rap sound such as and the solo career of. Artists were key in further expanding rap music and bringing southern hip hop into the mainstream. Releases such as 's in 1992, 's in 1995 and 's in 1996 were all critically acclaimed. Later, ( ) built up a roster of artists (the posse) based out of. Master P incorporated and influences; and distinctive regional sounds from, Chicago,, and others began to gain popularity. In the 1990s, elements of hip hop continued to be assimilated into other genres of popular music., for example, combined hip hop and. In the 1980s and 1990s,, and, fusions of hip hop and, and became popular among mainstream audiences.

And band were among the most well-known bands in these fields. ' 1993 release was an influential record sampling the likes of,,,,,, and. It spawned the hit single 'Rebirth of Slick (Cool Like Dat)' which reached #16 on the Billboard Hot 100 Although white rappers like the, and had had some popular success or critical acceptance from the hip hop community, 's success, beginning in 1999 with the platinum, surprised many. Performing live at the Party in Los Angeles. The popularity of hip hop music continued through the 2000s. Dre remained an important figure, and in the year 2000, he produced. Dre also produced 's 2003 album, which debuted at number one on the charts.

Hip hop influences also found their way increasingly into mainstream pop during this period, mainly during the mid-2000s, as the Los Angeles style of the 1990s lost power. 's debut LP,, sold over nine million copies. In the 2000s, music, a derivative of Southern hip hop, gained considerable popularity via and the. Represented the cultural triumph of hip hop. As his career progressed, he went from performing artist to entrepreneur, label president, head of a clothing line, club owner, and market consultant—along the way breaking 's record for most number one albums on the Billboard magazine charts by a solo artist.

In 2012., which was introduced in the 1980s and then declined, resurged in the early 2000s with the rejuvenated interest in by the general public. In the 2000s alternative hip hop reattained its place within the mainstream, due in part to the declining commercial viability of gangsta rap as well as the crossover success of artists such as and. The alternative hip hop movement expanded beyond the US to include the -Canadian poet, Japanese rapper, and British artist. Alternative hip hop acts have attained much critical acclaim, but receive relatively little exposure through radio and other media outlets.

In the mid-to late-2000s (decade), alternative hip hop artists such as,, and achieved significant recognition. Gnarls Barkley's album, which contained a fusion of funk, neo soul and hip hop, debuted at number 20 on the Billboard 200 charts. In addition, 's 2007 album was well received, and reached #50 on the Billboard charts.

Crunk and snap music. Producer is one of crunk's most prominent figures. Crunk is a regional hip hop genre that originated in in the southern United States in the 1990s, influenced. One of the pioneers of crunk,, said that it was a fusion of hip hop,, and. The style was pioneered and commercialized by artists from and,. Looped, stripped-down rhythms are usually used. The and are among the most popular.

The drum machine loops are usually accompanied by simple, repeated synthesizer melodies and heavy bass 'stabs'. The tempo of the music is somewhat slower than hip-hop, around the speed of. The focal point of crunk is more often the beats and instrumental music rather than the lyrics. Crunk rappers, however, often shout and scream their lyrics, creating an aggressive, almost heavy, style of hip-hop. While other subgenres of hip-hop address sociopolitical or personal concerns, crunk is almost exclusively 'party music', favoring call and response hip-hop slogans in lieu of more substantive approaches. Snap music is a subgenre of crunk that emerged from, in the late 1990s.

The genre gained mainstream popularity and in mid-2005, artists from other southern states such as began to emerge performing in this style. Tracks commonly consist of an,,, finger, a main and a vocal track. Hit snap songs include ' by ', ' by, ' by and '.

Glitch hop and wonky music. Glitch hop and wonky music evolved following the rise of, and (IDM). Both glitch hop and wonky music frequently reflect the experimental nature of IDM and the heavy bass featured in dubstep songs.

While trip hop has been described as being a distinct British upper-middle class take on hip-hop, glitch-hop and wonky music have much more stylistic diversity. Both genres are of influence. Glitch hop contains echoes of 1980s pop music, Indian, eclectic and. Los Angeles, London, and a number of other cities have become hot spots for these scenes, and underground scenes have developed across the world in smaller communities.

Both genres often pay homage to older and more well established artists such as, and as well as independent hip hop producers like and. Glitch hop is a fusion genre of hip hop and glitch music that originated in the early to mid-2000s in the United States and Europe. Musically, it is based on irregular, chaotic, glitchy and other typical sound effects used in glitch music, like skips. Glitch hop artists include, and. Wonky is a subgenre of hip hop that originated around 2008, but most notably in the United States and United Kingdom, and among international artists of the music label, under the influence of glitch hop and dubstep. Wonky music is of the same glitchy style as glitch hop, but it was specifically noted for its melodies, rich with 'mid-range unstable synths'. Scotland has become one of the most prominent wonky scenes, with artists like and.

Glitch hop and wonky are popular among a relatively smaller audience interested in alternative hip hop and (especially dubstep); neither glitch hop nor wonky have achieved mainstream popularity. However, artists like, and have seen success in other avenues. Flying Lotus's music has earned multiple positive reviews on the independent music review site as well as a prominent (yet uncredited) spot during commercial breaks. Hudson Mohawke is one of few glitch hop artists to play at major music festivals such as. Decline in sales. While hip hop music sales dropped a great deal in the mid-2000s (decade), rappers like were successful online and with singles, despite low album sales.

Starting in 2005, sales of hip hop music in the United States began to severely wane, leading magazine to question if mainstream hip-hop was 'dying.' Billboard Magazine found that, since 2000, rap sales dropped 44%, and declined to 10% of all music sales, which, while still a commanding figure when compared to other genres, is a significant drop from the 13% of all music sales where rap music regularly placed. According to Courtland Milloy of, for the first time on five years, no rap albums were among the top 10 sellers in 2006.

Culture critic Elizabeth Blair noted that, 'some industry experts say young people are fed up with the violence, degrading imagery and lyrics.' However, the 2005 report Generation M: Media in the Lives of 8–18 Year-Olds found that hip hop music is by far the most popular music genre for children and teenagers with 65 percent of 8- to-18-year-olds listening to it on a daily basis. Other journalists say the music is just as popular as it ever was, but that fans have found other means to consume the music, such as illegally downloading music through P2P networks, instead of purchasing albums and singles from legitimate stores. For example, is known for his low album sales regardless of his singles being mainstream and having digital success. His second album sold only 200,000+ total units in the U.S., which could not line up to the sales of the album's lead single '. This also happened to him in 2008. Some put the blame on the lack of strong lyrical content that hip hop once had.

Another example is 's 2007 debut album was met with negative reviews. Lack of sampling, a key element of early hip hop, has also been noted for the decrease in quality of modern albums. For example, there are only four samples used in 2008's by, while there are 35 samples in 1998's. The decrease in sampling is in part due to it being too expensive for producers. In 's documentary Hip Hop: Beyond Beats and Rhymes, he claims that hip hop had changed from 'clever rhymes and dance beats' to 'advocating personal, social and criminal corruption.' Despite the fall in record sales throughout the music industry, hip-hop has remained a popular genre, with hip-hop artists still regularly topping the Charts. In the first half of 2009 alone artists such as,,, and all had albums that reached the #1 position on the Billboard 200 charts.

Eminem's album was one of the fastest selling albums of 2009. Musical theatre. In the 2000s, popular Broadway musicals such as incorporated hip hop music influences. This picture shows the Broadway cast from 2005.

Hip hop music has influenced. Rap-style verses were used in musical theater as early as 1956 in the production. Rap is used popular musicals such as and While more notable for funk than hip hop, the Broadway musical fuses and hip hop dance styles, and includes rap. Hip hop music was used in shows in the 1990s and early 2000s, with the musicals and.

Used hip hop music, rapping and hip hop dancing. With music and lyrics by and book by, it was performed off Broadway in 2007.

The 2008 Broadway production fused salsa and hip hop styles, and included rap. Miranda brought hip hop to Richard Rogers Theater a second time in 2015 with his production.

The show had box office success. Hamilton and In the Heights included rap and the cast recording of Hamilton made a number one album on the rap charts. The success of Hamilton shows that hip hop can have a key role in musical theater. Innovation and revitalization.

Performing in 2008 During the mid-2000s, secured a place in the mainstream, due in part to the crossover success of artists such as,, and. Not only did OutKast's receive high acclaim from music critics, manage to appeal to listeners of all ages, and span numerous musical genres – including rap, rock, R&B, punk, jazz, indie, country, pop, electronica and gospel – but it also spawned two number-one hit singles and has been by selling 11 times by the for shipping more than 11 million units, becoming one of the best selling hip-hop albums of all time as well as winning a for at the being only the second rap album to do so. Industry observers view the between Kanye West's and 's as a turning point for hip hop. West emerged the victor, selling nearly a million copies in the first week alone, proving that innovative rap music could be just as commercially viable as gangsta rap, if not more so. Although he designed it as a melancholic rather than rap, Kanye's following would have a significant effect on hip hop music.

While his decision to sing about love, loneliness, and heartache for the entirety of the album was at first heavily criticized by music audiences and the album predicted to be a flop, its subsequent critical acclaim and commercial success encouraged other mainstream rappers to take greater creative risks with their music. During the release of, New York rap mogul revealed that next studio album would be an experimental effort, stating, '. It's not gonna be a #1 album.

That's where I'm at right now. I wanna make the most experimental album I ever made.' Jay-Z elaborated that like Kanye, he was unsatisfied with contemporary hip hop, was being inspired by indie-rockers like and asserted his belief that the indie rock movement would play an important role in the continued evolution of hip-hop. In 2009, placed in the list of 'World's Most Influential People' The alternative hip hop movement is not limited only to the United States, as rappers such as -Canadian poet, Japanese rapper, and artist have achieved considerable worldwide recognition. In 2009, magazine placed M.I.A in the list of 'World's Most Influential people' for having 'global influence across many genres.' Global themed movements have also sprung out of the international hip-hop scene with microgenres like 'Islamic Eco-Rap' addressing issues of worldwide importance through traditionally disenfranchised voices.

Today, due in part to the increasing use of music distribution through the, many alternative rap artists find acceptance by far-reaching audiences. Several artists, such as and, have managed to attain chart-topping hit songs, ' and ' respectively, by releasing their music on free online without the help of a major record label. New artists such as,,,,, and, some of whom mention being directly influenced by their nineties alt-rap predecessors, in addition to the southern rap sound, while their music has been noted by critics as expressing eclectic sounds, life experiences, and emotions rarely seen in mainstream hip hop. 2010s On July 17, 2017, reported that hip-hop/ (which classifies as being the same genre) has recently usurped as the most consumed, becoming the most popular genre in music for the first time in U.S. World hip hop music.

The German rapper caused significant controversy with his music. In Asia, mainstream stars rose to prominence in the, led by, Rap Asia, MC Lara and Lady Diane. In Japan, where underground rappers had previously found a limited audience, and popular brought a style called J-rap to the top of the charts in the middle of the 1990s. Of particular importance is the influence on nations, where hip hop music has become fused with local popular music to form different styles such as, and.

's hip hop grew greatly in popularity at the end of the decade, with several stars both () and (). In Portugal hip hop has his own kind of rapping, which is more political and underground scene, they are known for, and. emerged during last years of and cemented later, with groups like and enjoying mainstream popularity in the 1990s, while and were popular in the 2000s. In former hip hop first appeared during the 1980s mostly with with performers such as,, Badvajzer, and others. During the late 1990s hip hop had a boom, with and later becoming a major performer.

Is nowadays dominated. In the region hip hop is often used as a political and social message in song themes such as war, profiteering, corruption, etc., another Bosnian rapper, is associated with Edo Maajka, and has collaborated beyond Bosnian borders. In in the early 2000s, local hip hop artists became popular by infusing local styles of and melodies, dancehall and hip-hop beats with Swahili lyrics.

Rap linguistics In September 2014 a course in rap linguistics was offered at the in, 'examining rap from cultures as diverse as German, French, Navajo and even the Sami people of Northern Europe.' The course has difficult content as rap is studied using methodologies applied in linguistics, such as grammar analysis and measurement of vowel sounds using software. According to associate professor Darin Flynn, who is teaching this course, rap heroes, such as Eminem or Jay-Z, are 'true poet laureate[s] of the working class' and their songs 'crisscross sound, emotion, grammar and multiple metaphors'. Return of the Golden-Era During the late 2010s, many artists announced their return to performing, including, and with their latest album titled.

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