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To account for the complex conjugation sign in the terms with p = 2, we introduce the 8 x 8 diagonal. Complex Variables by Robert B.

Table Of Contents. Chapter 1: Introduction.

1.1 Basic Definitions. 1.2 Further Topology of the Plane. 1.3 Analytic Functions. 1.4 Real-Differentiability and the Cauchy-Riemann Equations. 1.5 The Exponential Function.

1.6 Harmonic Functions. Chapter 2: The Because fermion fields obey canonical anticommutation relations, we need a theory of integration over classical anticommuting variables, so as to be able?iN =?i1iN. Now generalise the above to pairs of real or equivalently complex Grassmann variables?,??? (sometimes taken with a 1/v2). Let's define a set of anticommuting numbers or Grassmann variables: for we have just integral over a real variable; namely linearity and invariance under shifts: antisymmetric matrix of (complex) commuting numbers we find: 213. For larger (even) n we can bring a complex antisymmetric matrix to a block-diagonal form.

28 Nov 2016 mathematical physics to describe fermions, which are elementary particles obeying the so-called Fermi-Dirac statistics. The generators of the algebra are called Grassmann variables and they obey anti-commuting relations (unlike real or complex variables, which obey commuting relations, and which are In mathematical physics, a Grassmann number, named after Hermann Grassmann is an element of the exterior algebra over the complex numbers. The special case of a 1-dimensional algebra is known as a dual number.

Grassmann numbers saw an early use in physics to express a path integral representation for 9 Feb 2008 ior of the particles, both simple and complex, that we now call fermions. It is known to play a key role in grations are over anti-commuting variables that have no classical analogues. The weight functions for These anti-commuting numbers?n and their complex conjugates?? N satisfy the convenient 19. 1.3.3 The Polar Form of a Complex Number......... 1.3.4 Roots of Complex Numbers............... 1.3.5 The Argument of a Complex Number..........

1.3.6 Fundamental Inequalities................. 2 The Relationship of Holomorphic and Harmonic Functions 31. 2.1 Holomorphic Functions. 11 Jan 2009 The first involves ordinary real or complex variables, and the other. Field theory there can be an infinite number of variables, and so we need to investigate how the Gaussian integrals. Fortunately, there is a non-matrix, anticommuting mathematical quantity called a Grassmann number that obeys just the Path integrals over Grassmann variables play important role in modern field theory. In the simplest.

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Jingwu ZHANG and G.H. Department of Chemistry, State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, New York 14214, USA. Received 18 September 1989; Citation. Yongfeng Wu, Yundong Zhang, Jing Wu, Ping Yuan, 'Temperature-insensitive fiber optic Fabry-Perot interferometer based on special air cavity for transverse load and strain measurements,' Opt.

Express 25, 9443-9448 (2017);. Image © 2017 1 May 2009 Prior to joining GlaxoSmithKline (GSK) in June 2007, Dr Jingwu Zang was the founding director of the Institute of Health Sciences with the Chinese Academy of Sciences and JiaoTong University School of Medicine, which rapidly became one of the top translational research institutions in China. He also 5 Dec 2013 The paper, “Crucial role of interleukin-7 in T helper type 17 survival and expansion in autoimmune disease,” came from a group led by Jingwu Zhang, who at the time ran GlaxoSmithKline's Research and Development Center in Shanghai.

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Download Software validation and quality assurance techniques pdf: Read Online Software validation and quality assurance techniques pdf: verification and validation techniques in software engineering difference between verification and validation in software engineering pdf software quality assurance pdf books verification and validation in software testing with example software testing and quality assurance tutorials software validation techniques software quality assurance lecture notes verification and validation in software engineering ppt V&V and QA throughout the M&S Life Cycle. Department of Computer Science representational/behavioral accuracy (validity). Testing is conducted to perform verification and/or validation.

Such as model, simulation, software, data, or a life cycle artifact. (work product) such as requirements Software verification and validation are software quality assurance activities that aim to Validation is further divided into static validation and dynamic validation. Static validation checks the correctness of the software product without executing the software lifecycle, formal verification and software testing techniques. 1 Dec 1988 The Software Engineering Institute (SEI) is a federally funded research and development center, operated by Carnegie. Mellon University under contract with Software verification and validation techniques are sues. With regard to the other. V&V Objectives c.

Software Quality Assurance a. 11 Jan 2002 the software developer should determine the specific approach, the combination of techniques to be cycle model or any specific technique or method, it does recommend that software validation and. Software quality assurance needs to focus on preventing the introduction of defects into the software. Discusses testing and analysis techniques that can be used to validate software and to instill confidence in the quality of the programming product.

It presents a collec- tion of verification techniques that can be used throughout the development process to facilitate software quality assurance. Programs whose malfunction Budapest University of Technology and Economics. Department of Measurement and Information Systems. Budapest University of Technology and Economics.

Fault Tolerant Systems Research Group. Overview of V&V techniques. Istvan Majzik, Zoltan Micskei. Software and Systems Verification (VIMIMA01) Introduction to Software Quality.

Assurance & Testing. Sources: Code Complete, 2nd Ed., Steve McConnell. Software Engineering, 5th Ed., Roger Pressman Validation.

– Build the right product. – Those activities that attempt to determine that customer needs can be met by a product. • Verification.

– Build the product right. Foundations of software verification and validation (V&V). • Mostly a practical perspective. • Emphasis on testing (many kinds).

• Most important V&V technique in practice. • But also safety analysis, fault tolerance, model checking, requirements quality assurance, etc. • More basic coverage of other aspects. • No emphasis on software is fault free). Nevertheless, they are the aspirations of validation and verification.

Why is attainment so difficult? Here are some reasons: •. Usually it is.

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JUSP-OP03A iv.???????????????????????,?????????????????????????????????,????????????????,????????????????????????????????????????????????,?????????,??????????? Explanation being given. The text indicated by this icon explains the operating procedure using the Hand-held Digital. Operator (JUSP-OP02A-1). The text indicated by this icon explains the operating procedure using a Mounted Digital Op- erator (JUSP-OP03A). Products 1 - 50 of 91 ashida relay manual pdf como instalar autocad 2010 crack f70la 4 stroke service manual high school juno 106 plugin audi crye precision jpc manual muscle pass manual ebp plan de negocio 2012 crack jusp op03a manual treadmill 35 Poison Cases, 38 Instructions to Coroners, 39 Correspondence explanation being given. The text indicated by this icon explains the operating procedure using the Hand-held Digital.

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AC SERVOPACK (type SGD) has two control types; speed control. (torque control) and position control. Since each has different opera— tions, make sure of your SERVOPACK type and read the section stated in Table 1.1 for each operation. Handy type digital operator (type JUSP-OPOZA- l) is also available for.

(5) Mounted-type digital operator (type JUSP-OP03A) is also available for SERVOPACK (type SGD, SGDA, SGDB, and SGDE). For mounted-type, refer to the instruction manual (TOE-S800-15.4). Only a hand-held type digital operator can be used with type DR2.

(6) Digital operator (type JUSP-OP02A) for Published Document Attachment(s):, TOE-S800-15.4.pdf. File Size(s):, 1.2 MB Manuals. Document Subtype: Operation Manuals. Document Title: Digital Operator JUSP-OP03A Operation Manual for SGD Servopacks. Revision Number: B. Document Number: TOE-S800-15.4. Document Date: 01/08/97.

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Physical Address Space.? The concept of a logical address space that is bound to a separate physical address space is central to proper memory management. 0 Logical address – generated by the CPU; also referred to as virtual address. 0 Physical address – address seen by the memory unit.?

Logical Memory Addressing.? Today's microprocessors include several circuits to make memory managment both more efficient and more robust.? In this chapter we study details Physical address: Used to address memory cells in memory chips. A logical address consists of two parts: a segment identifier and an offset that.

Chapter 8: Memory Management. • Background.

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Physical address – address seen by the memory unit.? Logical and The address generated by CPU is called logical (or virtual) address space. Processes are always uses virtual address space and they do not see physical address. Logical address space is set of logical addresses that generated by a program. The physical address is address that seen by memory unit and used to access •Logical versus Physical Address Space. •Overlays versus Swapping.

•Contiguous Allocation. •Segmentation with Paging. Operating System Concepts.

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• Vinayak Biradar; Santosh Narwade; Mandar Paingankar; Deepti Deobagkar 2013-12-01 White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) is a major pathogen in shrimp aquaculture, and its rampant spread has resulted in great economic loss. Identification of host cellular proteins interacting with WSSV will help in unravelling the repertoire of host proteins involved in WSSV infection. In this study, we have employed one-dimensional and two-dimension virus overlay protein binding assay (VOPBA) followed by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) to identify the host proteins of Penaeus monodon that could interact with WSSV. The VOPBA results suggest that WSSV interacted with housekeeping proteins such as heat shock protein 70, ATP synthase subunit, phosphopyruvate hydratase, allergen Pen m 2, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, sarcoplasmic calcium-binding protein, actin and 14-3-3-like protein. Our findings suggest that WSSV exploits an array of housekeeping proteins for its transmission and propagation in P. • Andi Parenrengi 2016-11-01 Full Text Available Transgenesis pada ikan merupakan sebuah teknik modern yang berpotensi besar dalam menghasilkan organisme yang memiliki karakter lebih baik melalui rekombinan DNA gen target termasuk gen anti virus dalam peningkatan resistensi pada udang.

Gen anti virus PmAV ( Penaeus monodon Anti Viral gene merupakan salah satu gen pengkode anti virus yang berasal dari spesies krustase. Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengetahui karakteristik gen anti virus yang diisolasi dari udang windu, Penaeus monodon. Isolasi gen anti virus menggunakan metode Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR dan selanjutnya dipurifikasi untuk sekuensing. Data yang dihasilkan dianalisis dengan program Genetyx Versi 7 dan basic local alignment search tool (BLAST.

Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa gen anti virus PmAV yang berhasil diisolasi dari cDNA udang windu dengan panjang sekuen 520 bp yang mengkodekan 170 asam amino. BLAST-N menunjukkan tingkat similaritas yang sangat tinggi (100% dengan gen anti virus yang ada di GeneBank. Komposisi asam amino penyusun gen anti virus yang paling besar adalah serin (10,00%, sedangkan yang terkecil adalah asam amino prolin dan lisin masing-masing 1,76%. Analisis sekuen gen dan deduksi asam amino (BLAST-P memperlihatkan adanya C-type lectin-like domain (CTLD yang memiliki kemiripan dengan gen C-type lectin yang diisolasi dari beberapa spesies krustase.

Transgenic fish technology is a potential modern technique in producing better character organism through DNA recombinant of target genes including anti viral gene for improvement of shrimp immunity. PmAV ( Penaeus monodon Anti Viral gene is one of anti viral genes isolated from crustacean species.

The research was conducted to analyze the characteristics anti viral gene isolated from tiger prawn, Penaeus monodon. Anti viral gene was isolated using Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR technique and then purified for sequencing. Data obtained were analyzed using Genetyx Version 7 software and basic local alignment • GUO Zhixun(郭志勋); Karin van de Braak; Magriet Botterbloom 2004-01-01 Distribution of injected Vibrio anguillarum in body of Penaeus monodon was studied with immunohistochemical method. Bacteria could be detected throughout the experiment in some individuals; however in lymphoid tissue, gill, heart and haemolymph of all vibrio injected shrimp, the bacteria could be observed only 5 min after injection.

The bacteria density in haemolymph, haemolymph of the hepatopancreas and gills decreased with time. In the lymphoid organ and heart, the bacteria density was the highest 48 h after injection, then decreased. Nodules could be formed in the heart, lymphoid organ and injection site. • Melta Rini Fahmi 2016-11-01 Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui respon udang windu ( Penaeus monodon terhadap pemberian antigen virus WSSV (White Spot Syndrome Virus yang diinaktifkan dengan menggunakan formaldehid. Penelitian dibagi menjadi dua tahapan, tahapan pertama yaitu menentukan nilai VID50 (Virus Infective Doze dengan Rancangan Acak Lengkap, tahap kedua untuk melihat pengaruh pemberian virus WSSV yang diinaktifkan dengan formaldehid terhadap respon imunitas, tingkah laku, dan tingkat sintasan.

Pada tahap kedua penelitian dilakukan secara faktorial, faktor yang digunakan adalah konsentrasi virus terdiri atas 2 level serta konsentrasi formaldehid yang terdiri atas 3 level. Masing-masing kombinasi di atas dibuat sebanyak 6 kali, yang digunakan untuk 3 kelompok penelitian yaitu kelompok tanpa diuji tantang, diuji tantang dilakukan setelah 14 hari, dan uji tantang dilakukan setelah 21 hari, dilaksanakan sebanyak 2 kali ulangan.

Untuk semua kelompok percobaan respons udang paling sensitif berupa berenang ke permukaan terjadi setelah 1 jam perlakuan diberikan, diikuti oleh penurunan aktivitas dan penurunan nafsu makan. Tingkat kerusakan organ paling tinggi terdapat pada kelompok penelitian ke-2 (uji tantang setelah 14 hari. Untuk kelompok 1 (divaksinasi kondisi organ hampir normal, hal ini menandakan virus berhasil dilemahkan dan mampu memacu timbulnya antibodi.

Tingkat sintasan udang lebih tinggi setelah diuji tantang dibandingkan yang tidak divaksinasi. The purpose of the research was to determine response of black tiger shrimp ( Penaeus monodon toward formaldehyde inactivated White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV.The study was divided into two phases, the first phase was to determine the VID50 (Virus Infective Doze using Completely Randomize Design, the second phase was to determine of effectiveness of inactive WSSV antigen on the immune response of Penaeus monodon, behavior and pathological respond of Penaeus monodon larvae. VID50 value determined during research was • Christie, Andrew E 2014-09-15 The shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei and Penaeus monodon are arguably the most important commercially farmed crustaceans. While expansion of their aquaculture has classically relied on improvements to rearing facilities, these options have largely been exhausted, and today a shift in focus is occurring, with increased investment in manipulating the shrimp themselves. Hormonal control is one strategy for increasing aquaculture output. However, to use it, one must first understand an animal's native hormonal systems. Here, transcriptome shotgun assembly (TSA) data were used to expand the peptidomes for L.

Vannamei and P. Via an established bioinformatics workflow, 41 L. Vannamei and 25 P. Monodon pre/preprohormone-encoding transcripts were identified, allowing for the prediction of 158 and 106 distinct peptide structures for these species, respectively. The identified peptides included isoforms of allatostatin A, B and C, as well as members the bursicon, CAPA, CCHamide, crustacean cardioactive peptide, crustacean hyperglycemic hormone, diuretic hormone 31, eclosion hormone, FLRFamide, GSEFLamide, intocin, leucokinin, molt-inhibiting hormone, myosuppressin, neuroparsin, neuropeptide F, orcokinin, orcomyotropin, pigment dispersing hormone, proctolin, red pigment concentrating hormone, RYamide, SIFamide, short neuropeptide F and tachykinin-related peptide families. While some of the predicted peptides are known L.

Vannamei and/or P. Monodon isoforms (which vet the structures of many peptides identified previously via mass spectrometry and other means), most are described here for the first time. These data more than double the extant catalogs of L. Vannamei and P. Monodon peptides and provide platforms from which to launch future physiological studies of peptidergic signaling in these two commercially important species. • Shanmugam Velmurugan 2010-12-01 Full Text Available The knowledge of the nutrient requirements and practical diet formulations for Penaeus monodon is fully known. In the production cost, the cost of diet alone comes around 50 to70%.

This ismainly because of the addition of lecithin which is a relatively expensive dietary ingredient. It isimportant to determine the usefulness of lecithin in the growth of P.

In order to keep the dietcost as low as possible this experiment was designed with and without lecithin. The objective of thepresent study was to assess the growth of shrimp with varying lecithin doses.

To study the water qualityparameters and to study the growth and survival of animals feed containing different percentage oflecithin. Trials conducted indicated the soybean lecithin did not have any effect on shrimp’s growth. Theshrimp weight varied from 3.15 to 8g in Control, 2.58 to 6g in Treatment A, 2.87 to 6.62g in TreatmentB, 3.1 to 6.75g in Treatment C. These confirm that under a controlled clear water culture system, partialor complete replacement of soybean lecithin in a commercial diet for P. Monodon resulted in nodetriment in growth.

Purge lecithin in the diet may allow for less-expensive diet formulations for P. Monodon and may reduce the diet cost for producers, who are supplying feed. As diet cost representsthe largest variable cost in a commercial aquaculture operation, increased knowledge of specific dietaryrequirements is essential for formulating a cost-effective commercial P.

Monodon diet. • Babu, Divya T; Antony, Swapna P; Joseph, Simi P; Bright, Ann Rose; Philip, Rosamma 2013-03-01 A marine yeast Candida aquaetextoris S527 as a source of immunostimulant in Penaeus monodon was studied.

Yeast diet was prepared by incorporating 10% C. Aquaetextoris S527 biomass into a standard shrimp diet and administered in P. Monodon at different frequencies (daily, once in three days, once in seven days and once in ten days) followed by challenge with white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). Immune parameters such as total protein, total hemocyte count, pro-phenoloxidase, nitroblue tetrazolium reduction, alkaline phosphatase activity and acid phosphatase activity were tested. Expression profile of antimicrobial peptide (AMP) genes viz., anti-lipopolysaccharide factor (ALF), crustin-1, crustin-2, crustin-3, penaeidin-3 and penaeidin-5; immune genes viz., alpha-2-macroglobulin (α-2-M), astakine, peroxinectin, prophenol oxidase (proPO) and transglutaminase, and WSSV genes viz., DNA polymerase, endonuclease, protein kinase, immediate early gene, latency related gene, ribonucleotide reductase, thymidine kinase and VP28 were analyzed.

The study demonstrated that marine yeast diet administered once every seven days conferred better protection to P. Monodon against WSSV infection, supported by the hematological and immune gene expression profiles analyzed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. • Sitthichai IAMSAARD; Siriporn SRIURAIRATANA; Boonsirm WITHYACHUMNARNKUL 2012-01-01 Objective:To examine the structure of the oviduct of the shrimp Penaeus monodon.Methods:The oviducts of P. • Jayesh, P; Vrinda, S; Priyaja, P; Philip, Rosamma; Singh, I S Bright 2016-08-01 Retaining terminal transferase activity of telomerase, the ribonucleoprotein enzyme which add telomeric repeats on chromosome end is thought to be required to prevent cellular ageing. Additionally, telomerase considered as a marker for cell proliferation and immortalization in eukaryotes.

We examined telomerase activity in tissues and lymphoid cell culture of Penaeus monodon. Along with telomerase activity, telomere repeats and an attempt on identification of telomerase reverse transcriptase (PmTERT) were made.

Telomeric repeat amplification protocol revealed that telomerase-dependent telomeric lengthening has been taking place in P. Monodon and the adult tissues were retaining this capacity throughout their lifespan with the highest activity in ovary, testis and lymphoid organ. However, telomerase activity could not be detected in lymphoid cells in culture. The canonical telomeric repeats added by telomerase of lymphoid tissue extract were identified as TTAGG, but pentameric repeats GGTTA and AGGTT were also added by the telomerase.

PmTERT protein sequence (partial) shared 100% identity with the TERT sequence of Daphnia pulex, 27% sequence identity with Purple sea urchin and 24-25% with Zebra fish. Undetectable telomerase activity in lymphoid cell culture supports the hypothesis that the inadequate telomerase activity or gene expression may be a reason that prevents neoplastic transformation and spontaneous immortalization of the cells in vitro. Thus, it is envisaged that telomerase activation in lymphoid cells may surmount cellular ageing for in vitro transformation and cell line establishment. • Wanilada Rungrassamee Full Text Available The black tiger shrimp ( Penaeus monodon is a marine crustacean of economic importance in the world market. To ensure sustainability of the shrimp industry, production capacity and disease outbreak prevention must be improved.

Understanding healthy microbial balance inside the shrimp intestine can provide an initial step toward better farming practice and probiotic applications. In this study, we employed a barcode pyrosequencing analysis of V3-4 regions of 16S rRNA genes to examine intestinal bacteria communities in wild-caught and domesticated P. Monodon broodstock. Shrimp faeces were removed from intestines prior to further analysis in attempt to identify mucosal bacterial population. Five phyla, Actinobacteria, Fusobacteria, Proteobacteria, Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes, were found in all shrimp from both wild and domesticated environments. The operational taxonomic unit (OTU was assigned at 97% sequence identity, and our pyrosequencing results identified 18 OTUs commonly found in both groups.

Sequences of the shared OTUs were similar to bacteria in three phyla, namely i Proteobacteria (Vibrio, Photobacterium, Novosphingobium, Pseudomonas, Sphingomonas and Undibacterium, ii Firmicutes (Fusibacter, and iii Bacteroidetes (Cloacibacterium. The shared bacterial members in P. Monodon from two different habitats provide evidence that the internal environments within the host shrimp also exerts selective pressure on bacterial members. Intestinal bacterial profiles were compared using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE. The sequences from DGGE bands were similar to those of Vibrio and Photobacterium in all shrimp, consistent with pyrosequencing results.

This work provides the first comprehensive report on bacterial populations in the intestine of adult black tiger shrimp and reveals some similar bacterial members between the intestine of wild-caught and domesticated shrimp. • Rungrassamee, Wanilada; Klanchui, Amornpan; Maibunkaew, Sawarot; Chaiyapechara, Sage; Jiravanichpaisal, Pikul; Karoonuthaisiri, Nitsara 2014-01-01 The black tiger shrimp ( Penaeus monodon) is a marine crustacean of economic importance in the world market. To ensure sustainability of the shrimp industry, production capacity and disease outbreak prevention must be improved. Understanding healthy microbial balance inside the shrimp intestine can provide an initial step toward better farming practice and probiotic applications. In this study, we employed a barcode pyrosequencing analysis of V3-4 regions of 16S rRNA genes to examine intestinal bacteria communities in wild-caught and domesticated P. Monodon broodstock. Shrimp faeces were removed from intestines prior to further analysis in attempt to identify mucosal bacterial population.

Five phyla, Actinobacteria, Fusobacteria, Proteobacteria, Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes, were found in all shrimp from both wild and domesticated environments. The operational taxonomic unit (OTU) was assigned at 97% sequence identity, and our pyrosequencing results identified 18 OTUs commonly found in both groups. Sequences of the shared OTUs were similar to bacteria in three phyla, namely i) Proteobacteria (Vibrio, Photobacterium, Novosphingobium, Pseudomonas, Sphingomonas and Undibacterium), ii) Firmicutes (Fusibacter), and iii) Bacteroidetes (Cloacibacterium). The shared bacterial members in P.

Monodon from two different habitats provide evidence that the internal environments within the host shrimp also exerts selective pressure on bacterial members. Intestinal bacterial profiles were compared using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE).

The sequences from DGGE bands were similar to those of Vibrio and Photobacterium in all shrimp, consistent with pyrosequencing results. This work provides the first comprehensive report on bacterial populations in the intestine of adult black tiger shrimp and reveals some similar bacterial members between the intestine of wild-caught and domesticated shrimp. • 2005-01-01 Ochratoxin A (OTA) and deoxynivalenol (DON), naturally occurring contaminants of animal feed, have been implicated in several mycotoxicoses in farm livestock but there is little information on their toxicity in aquatic invertebrates.

Therefore, in the present study an 8-week feeding trial was conducted on black tiger shrimp ( Penaeus monodon) to assess the effects of OTA and DON on growth performance, haemolymph parameters and histopathology of shrimp. Results showed that feed supplemented wit. • 2008-01-01 In Vietnam, enrofloxacin is one of the most commonly used antibiotics in shrimp farms. Although the European Union set a maximum residue limit (MRL) of 100 µg/kg for enrofloxacin and its metabolite ciprofloxacin in edible tissues of aquatic animals for human consumption, only few data are available on its potential deleterious effects on shrimp. This study aimed to investigate the impacts of enrofloxacin on oxidative stress in hepatopancreas and gills of black tiger shrimp ( Penaeus monodon). • 罗田; 徐洵 2002-01-01 --mRNA was isolated from the hepatopancrease of shrimp Penaeus monodon with a PolyATtract System 1000 Kit. By using mRNA as template, double- strand cDNA with EcoR I/Xho I ends was synthesized by using a ZAP Express cDNA Synthesis Kit.

The cDNA was inserted into the lambda ZAP Express vector predigested with EcoR I/Xho I, and the recombinant DNA was in vitro packaged into larnbda phage with GigapackⅢ Gold packaging extracts. These recombinant phages were then used to transfect E. Coli XLl - Blue MRF', and finally a cDNA expression library was constructed. The library is 7.2 × 105pfu in capacity and its recombination ratio is higher than 99%.

The size of the inserted cDNAs was determined by EcoR I/Xho I digestion of 9 phagemids prepared by in vivo excision of plaques selected randomly from amplified cDNA library. The longest inserted cDNA is about 1.6 kb in length. The complete sequence (about 1.2 kb) of actin cDNA was amplified from the library by PCR reveals that this library contains full-length cDNAs of Penaeus mod on hepatopancreas and is available for screening and expression of shrimp genes. • Wipasiri Soonthornchai Full Text Available Several species of Vibrio are the causative agent of gastroenteritis in humans.

In aquaculture, Vibrio harveyi (Vh and V. Parahaemolyticus (Vp have long been considered as shrimp pathogens in freshwater, brackish and marine environments. Here we show by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM that Penaeus monodon orally inoculated with each of these two pathogens via an Artemia diet had numerous bacteria attached randomly across the stomach surface, in single and in large biofilm-like clusters 6 h post-infection. A subsequent marked proliferation in the number of V. Harveyi within the biofilm-like formations resulted in the development of infections in the stomach, the upper and middle midgut, but neither in the posterior midgut nor the hindgut. SEM also revealed the induced production of peritrichous pili-like structures by the Vp attaching to the stomach lining, whilst only a single polar fibre was seen forming an apparent physical bridge between Vh and the host's epithelium. In contrast to these observations, no such adherences or linkages were seen when trials were conducted with non-pathogenic Vibrio spp.

Or with Micrococcus luteus, with no obvious resultant changes to the host's gut surface. In naive shrimp, the hindgut was found to be a favorable site for bacteria notably curved, short-rod shaped bacteria which probably belong to Vibrio spp. Data from the current study suggests that pathogens of P. Monodon must be able to colonize the digestive tract, particularly the stomach, where chitin is present, and then they use an array of virulent factors and enzymes to infect their host resulting in disease.

Oral infection is a better way of mimicking natural routes of infection; investigating the host-bacteria interactions occurring in the digestive tract may lead to new strategies for the prevention or control of bacterial infections in penaeids. • Liu, Kuan-Fu; Yeh, Maw-Sheng; Kou, Guang-Hsiung; Cheng, Winton; Lo, Chu-Fang 2010-09-01 Complementary (c)DNA encoding glutathione peroxidase (GPx) messenger (m)RNA of the tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon was obtained from haemocytes by a reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) method. The 1321-bp cDNA contained an open reading frame (ORF) of 564bp, a 69-bp 5'-untranslated region (UTR), and a 688-bp 3'-UTR containing a poly A tail and a conserved selenocysteine insertion sequence (SECIS) element. The molecular mass of the deduced amino acid (aa) sequence (188 aa) was 21.05kDa long with an estimated pI of 7.68. It contains a putative selenocysteine residue which is encoded by the unusual stop codon, (190)TGA(192), and forms the active site with residues Glu(75) and Trp(143). Comparison of amino acid sequences showed that tiger shrimp GPx is more closely related to vertebrate GPx1, in accordance with those in Litopenaeus vannamei and Macrobrachium rosenbergii. GPx cDNA was synthesised in lymphoid organ, gills, heart, haemocytes, the hepatopancreas, muscles, and intestines.

After injected with either Photobacterium damsela or white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), the respiratory bursts of shrimp significantly increased in order to kill the pathogen, and induced increases in the activities of superoxide dismutase and GPx, and regulation in the expression of cloned GPx mRNA to protect cells against damage from oxidation. The GPx expression significantly increased at stage D(0/1), and then gradually decreased until stage C suggesting that the cloned GPx might play a role in the molt regulation of shrimp. • Gadaj, Anna; Cooper, Kevin M; Karoonuthaisiri, Nitsara; Furey, Ambrose; Danaher, Martin 2015-01-01 The depletion of three banned nitroimidazole drugs - dimetridazole (DMZ), metronidazole (MNZ) and ronidazole (RNZ) - was investigated in black tiger shrimp ( Penaeus monodon) following in-water medication. The highest concentrations of residues were measured immediately after the 24-h immersion (d0). At this time, MNZ and MNZ-OH residues were measured in shrimp tissue samples at concentrations ranging from 361 to 4189 and from 0.28 to 6.6 μg kg(-1), respectively. DMZ and its metabolites HMMNI ranged in concentration between 31,509 and 37,780 and between 15.0 and 31.9 μg kg(-1), respectively.

RNZ and HMMNI concentrations ranged from 14,530 to 24,206 and from 25.0 to 55 μg kg(-1), respectively. MNZ, DMZ and RNZ were the more persistent marker residues and can be detected for at least 8 days post-treatment.

MNZ-OH was only detectable on d0 following treatment with MNZ. HMMNI residues were only detectable up to d1 (0.97-3.2 μg kg(-1)) or d2 (1.2-4.5 μg kg(-1)) following DMZ and RNZ treatment, respectively.

The parent drugs MNZ, DMZ and RNZ were still measureable on d8 at 0.12-1.0, 40.5-55 and 8.8-18.7 μg kg(-1), respectively. The study also investigated the stability of nitroimidazole residues under various cooking procedures (frying, grilling, boiling, and boiling followed by microwaving). The experiments were carried out in shrimp muscle tissue containing both high and low concentrations of these residues. Different cooking procedures showed the impact on nitroimidazole residue concentration in shrimp tissue. Residue concentration depleted significantly, but partially, by boiling and/or microwaving, but the compounds were largely resistant to conventional grilling or frying. Cooking cannot therefore be considered as a safeguard against harmful nitroimidazole residues in shrimp. • Yeh, Maw-Sheng; Huang, Chang-Jen; Guo, Chih-Hung; Liu, Kuan-Fu; Tsai, Inn-Ho; Cheng, Winton 2012-01-01 Complementary (c)DNA encoding selenophosphate synthetase (SPS) messenger (m)RNA of the tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon, designated PmSPS, was obtained from the hepatopancreas by a reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE).

The 1582-bp cDNA contained an open reading frame (ORF) of 1248 bp, a 103-bp 5'-untranslated region (UTR), and a 231-bp 3'-UTR, which contained a conserved selenocysteine insertion sequence (SECIS) element, a conventional polyadenylation signal, and a poly A tail. The molecular mass of the deduced amino acid (aa) sequence (416 aa) was 45.5 kDa with an estimated pI of 4.85. It contained a putative selenocysteine residue which was encoded by the unusual stop codon, (275)TGA(277), which formed at the active site with residues Sec(58) and Lys(61). A comparison of amino acid sequences showed that PmSPS was more closely related to invertebrate SPS1, such as those of Heliothis virescens and Drosophila melanogaster a and b. PmSPS cDNA was synthesized in all tested tissues, especially in the hepatopancreas. PmSPS in the hepatopancreas of shrimp significantly increased after an injection with either Photobacterium damsela or white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) in order to protect cells against damage from oxidation, and enhance the recycling of selenocysteine or selenium metabolism, indicating that PmSPS is involved in the disease-resistance response. The PmSPS expression by hemocytes significantly increased in stage C, and then gradually decreased until stage A, suggesting that the cloned PmSPS in hemocytes might play a role in viability by renewing hemocytes and antioxidative stress response for new exoskeleton synthesis during the molt cycle of shrimp.

• Pham, K-C; Tran, H T T; Van Doan, C; Le, P H; Van Nguyen, A T; Nguyen, H A; Hong, H A; Cutting, S M; Phan, T-N 2017-03-01 In this study, Bacillus subtilis spores expressing a chimeric protein, CotB-VP28, were used as a probiotic vaccine to protect black tiger shrimps ( Penaeus monodon) against white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection. Oral administration of pellets coated with CotB-VP28 spores (at ≥1 × 10(9 ) CFU per g pellet) to shrimps induced immune-relating phenoloxydase activity (PO) in shrimps after 14 days of feeding (prior challenge) and at day 3 post challenge (126 and 170 fold increase respectively).

A 75% protection rate was obtained by continuous feeding of the spore-coated pellets at ≥1 × 10(9 ) CFU per g for 14 days prior to WSSV challenge and during all the postchallenge period. Even when the amount of CotB-VP28 spores in feed pellets was reduced down to ≥5 × 10(7) CFU per g and ≥1 × 10(6) CFU per g, relatively high protection rates of 70 and 675%, respectively, were still obtained. By contrast, feeding pellets without spores (untreated group) and with naked spores (PY79 group) at ≥1 × 10(9) CFU per g could not protect shrimps against WSSV. These data suggest that supplementation of CotB-VP28 spores at low dose of ≥1 × 10(6) CFU per g could be effective as a prophylactic treatment of WSS for black tiger shrimps.

• Muliani Muliani 2011-12-01 Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui karakteristik, dan menentukan posisi relatif isolat BT951 melalui identifikasi molekuler menggunakan gen 16S-rRNA, serta mengevaluasi potensinya sebagai probiotik pada budidaya udang windu (P. Penelitian ini meliputi tahapan: (1 isolasi dan karakterisasi secara morfologi; (2 uji fisiologi dan biokimia; (3 identifikasi isolat BT951 secara molekuler; (4 uji sensitifitas terhadap antibiotik; (5 uji daya hambat isolat BT951 terhadap V. Harveyi; (6 uji patogenisitas isolat BT951 terhadap larva udang; (7 uji tantang isolat BT951 dengan V. Harveyi; (8 uji ketahanan isolat BT951 pada suhu ruang dan suhu 4oC. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa, secara morfologi isolat BT951 koloninya berbentuk bulat kecil, berwarna krem kekuningan, tepian licin, dan cembung, termasuk kelompok bakteri gram positif yang berbentuk batang, oksidase dan katalase positif, indol negatif, dan bersifat motil. Bakteri ini dapat tumbuh pada suhu 40oC, salinitas 0-50 ppt, dan sensitif terhadap beberapa jenis antibiotik seperti rifanpisin, eritromisin, dan klorampenikol akan tetapi resiten terhadap ampisilin, oksitetrasiklin, gentamisin, dan furazolidon. Berdasarkan hasil analisis gen 16S-rRNA menunjukkan bahwa isolat BT951 termasuk kelompok Brevibacillus laterosporus dengan indeks kedekatan sebesar 97,7%.

Bakteri ini tidak bersifat patogen terhadap udang windu, dapat menghambat pertumbuhan bakteri V. Harveyi, dan potensial dijadikan sebagai bakteri probiotik pada budidaya udang windu. • Antony, Swapna P; Singh, I S Bright; Sudheer, N S; Vrinda, S; Priyaja, P; Philip, Rosamma 2011-01-01 A crustin-like antimicrobial peptide from the haemocytes of giant tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon was partially characterized at the molecular level and phylogenetic analysis was performed. The partial coding sequence of 299 bp and 91 deduced amino acid residues possessed conserved cysteine residues characteristic of the shrimp crustins. Phylogenetic tree and sequence comparison clearly confirmed divergence of this crustin-like AMP from other shrimp crustins. The differential expression of the crustin-like AMP in P. Monodon in response to the administration of various immunostimulants viz., two marine yeasts (Candida haemulonii S27 and Candida sake S165) and two β-glucan isolates (extracted from C.

Haemulonii S27 and C. Sake S165) were noted during the study. Responses to the application of two gram-positive probiotic bacteria (Bacillus MCCB101 and Micrococcus MCCB104) were also observed. The immune profile was recorded pre- and post-challenge white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) by semi-quantitative RT-PCR.

Expressions of seven WSSV genes were also observed for studying the intensity of viral infection in the experimental animals. The crustin-like AMP was found to be constitutively expressed in the animal and a significant down-regulation could be noted post-challenge WSSV. Remarkable down-regulation of the gene was observed in the immunostimulant fed animals pre-challenge followed by a significant up-regulation post-challenge WSSV. Tissue-wise expression of crustin-like AMP on administration of C. Haemulonii and Bacillus showed maximum transcripts in gill and intestine. The marine yeast, C.

Haemulonii and the probiotic bacteria, Bacillus were found to enhance the production of crustin-like AMP and confer significant protection to P. Monodon against WSSV infection. • Mallik, A; Chakrabarty, U; Dutta, S; Mondal, D; Mandal, N 2016-02-01 White spot disease caused by white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is responsible for harming shrimp aquaculture industry and results in a pandemic throughout the world. Undeniably, the knowledge on geographic distribution, transmission, virulence, and seasonal prevalence of this disease alongside information on the distribution of disease-resistant shrimps may be helpful to understand important aspects of disease biology.

This study was intended to estimate WSSV prevalence by qualitative and quantitative PCR method among the Penaeus monodon samples collected from four different places namely Digha, West Bengal; Chilika, Orissa; Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh; and Chennai, Tamil Nadu at three different seasons in the period of 2011-2013 from east coast of India. Along with this, the disease-resistant prevalence was also investigated using earlier developed 71 bp microsatellite and 457 bp RAPD-SCAR DNA marker among the collected shrimps. Qualitative PCR depicted that the cumulative WSSV prevalence at four places was the lowest (0%) at pre-monsoon, whereas, it was the highest (21.2%) during post-monsoon season. Quantitative real-time PCR showed the average copy number of WSSV to be the highest (~10(3) copy μg(-1) shrimp genomic DNA) at post-monsoon season. Additionally, estimated disease-resistant prevalence was the highest in Visakhapatnam (79%) and lowest in Digha (21%). It is well known to all that a trait cannot be identified using a single genetic pattern.

This study will significantly contribute insight to develop specific pathogen-resistant (SPR) seeds of P. Monodon simultaneously using two DNA markers that would be a cost-effective and safer approach towards disease prevention instead of conventional trends of seed generation from unselected wild broodstock. • Klowkliang, T.

2005-02-01 Full Text Available Chemical analysis of turmeric (Curcuma longa extracts using TLC/densitometry, showed an extract contain 21.57%w/w of three important curcuminoids: curcumin, desmethoxycurcumin and bisdesmethoxycurcumin. GC and MS were used to analyze volatile oils. Aromatic turmerone, α-turmerone and zingiberene were also obtained. Qualitative and quantitative analyses alcoholic extract of Andrographis paniculata using TLC, revealed that the extracts contain three important compounds in total lactone of 30.49% w/w. There are andrographolide,14-deoxy-11-12-didehydroandrographolide and neoandrographolide. TLC-chromatogram of Clinacanthus nutans extract after reacted with anisaldehyde/sulfuric acid showed a 9 key compounds, while preliminary neutralization test of the compounds revealed that there were active compounds against HSV-1 virus.

In vitro efficacy test revealed that Curcuma longa and Andrographis paniculata extracts at 250 and 1,500 mg/L could eradicate 15 isolates of Vibrio spp. Which were isolated from infected shrimps. Effects of medicinal plant extracts incorporated into the diet on shrimp immune responses were investigated. Shrimp fed diet containing Clinacanthus nutans extract at 20 mg/kg of diet had good growth, FCR and immune responses. The shrimp that were fed diet containing Curcuma longa extracts at 25 mg/kg of diet for 7-14 days showed high resistance to Vibrio harveyi.

Likewise, the shrimp fed Andrographis paniculata extract at 25 mg/ kg of diet for 14 days had a higher resistance to WSSV. Incorporating the medicinal extracts at higher levels resulted in reduction in diet palatability which consequently had an effect on a decrease in growth, immune responses and resistance to bacterial and WSSV infection. • Jose, S; Jayesh, P; Sudheer, N S; Poulose, G; Mohandas, A; Philip, R; Singh, I S Bright 2012-05-01 Shrimp cell lines are yet to be reported and this restricts the prospects of investigating the associated viral pathogens, especially white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). In this context, development of primary cell cultures from lymphoid organs was standardized. Poly-l-lysine-coated culture vessels enhanced growth of lymphoid cells, while the application of vertebrate growth factors did not, except insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1). Susceptibility of the lymphoid cells to WSSV was confirmed by immunofluoresence assay using monoclonal antibody against the 28 kDa envelope protein of WSSV. Expression of viral and immune-related genes in WSSV-infected lymphoid cultures could be demonstrated by RT-PCR.

This emphasizes the utility of lymphoid primary cell culture as a platform for research in virus-cell interaction, virus morphogenesis, up and downregulation of shrimp immune-related genes, and also for the discovery of novel drugs to combat WSSV in shrimp culture. • Heppi Iromo; Azis; Ishaq Saleh 2009-01-01 The research at shrimp ponds in Nunukan for two months, during the period from June to July 2009. The methods of this research were: Survey, interview and observation. The data collected in formed primary and secondary data. The purposed of this reseach that is to learning about management system of traditional shrimp ponds in Nunukan Island.

The result of this reseach indicated that the area wide of traditional ponds in this Island has differences. Subdistrict of Binusan has area wide about. LAY 2003-01-01 Full Text Available This study was carried out to obtain Vibrio isolates able to function as biocontr ol of vibriosis in shrimp hatchery. Thirty one Vibrio isolates were isolated from tiger shrimp larvae and hatchery environments, i.e. Labuan, Pangandaran, and Lampung, Indonesia.

Pathogenic V. Harveyi MR5339 was obtained from Maros, South-Sulawesi and was made as a rifampicin resistant mutant (RFR to screen for those 31 Vibrio isolates in in vitro assays and to allow us to monitor their presence in shrimp larvae and larval rearing water. Almost all Vibrio isolates could inhibit the growth of pathogenic V. Harveyi MR5339 RFR. SKT-b isolate from Skeletonema was the most effective to inhibit the growth of V. Harveyi MR5339 Rf* and significantly reduced larval mortality in pathogen challenge assays.

These prospective biocontrol bacteria, at concentration of 10' CFU/ml, did not show pathogenicity to shrimp larvae. SKT-b was Gram negative, short rod-shape, exhibited yellow colonies on TCBS and swarming on SWC-agar media, motile, u tilized glucose and sucrose but not lactose: produced extra-cellular protease and amylase, but did not produce chitmase. Partial sequencing of 16S-rRNA gene SKT-b showed SKT-b similarity to Vibrio alginofyticus. • Karekar, S.V.; Sreepada, R.A.; Shirodkar, R.R.; Kulkarni, S.; Kumar, P.; LokaBharathi, P.A.; Bergheim, A.; Vogelsang, C. Microbial transformations of nitrogen or organic carbon degradation. Continual aeration can also help to reduce the metabolite diffusion of ammonia, carbon dioxide and other dissolved gases across the water- air interface into the atmosphere.

Low DO concentrations also increase the toxicity of ammonia to shrimp. Gases such as ammonia can impact aquatic life by acute and chronic toxicity as well as ammonia oxidation, which reduces dissolved oxygen levels. Ammonia in shrimp ponds causes. • Fernandes, S.O.; Sreepada, R.A.; Kulkarni, S.S.; Karekar.

S.V.; Shirodkar, R.R.; Vogelsang, C.; LokaBharathi, P.A.. A wide variation in the weight of hepatopancreas of shrimps was also observed during analysis (data not shown) which could be attributed to the differential amounts of ingesta in shrimps sampled in spite of our best efforts to collect specimen.M., Bowers J.C., DePaola A., and Grimes D.J., 2010, Relationships between environmental factors and pathogenic Vibrios in the Northern Gulf of Mexico, Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 76(21): 7076-84 • Nayak, S.

As the fastest growing among various agricultural commodities. Fish and fishery products represent one of the most valuable and nutritious food item for humans having most of the essential nutrients for human health. Fisheries sector occupies a very important.-producing sector. In global trade, fish and fishery products are among the most sought after of various agricultural commodities. They represent the most valuable and nutritious food items for humans as they have most of the essential nutrients for human health. • Nayak, S.; Singh, S.K.; Ramaiah, N.; Sreepada, R.A.

At the early life-stages of shrimps are of great significance. An understanding therefore, of molecular responses and defense mechanism(s) in shrimps against bacterial pathogens is essential. Besides production of antimicrobial biomolecules, the innate. Immune/defense mechanisms in crustaceans involve phagocytosis, pathogen encapsulation, nodule formation, agglutination and prophenoloxidase (proPO) activating system [3].

However, the attempts to understand the molecular responses in the highly. • Emma Suryati 2013-08-01 kandungan senyawa steroid yaitu fitoekdisteroid dalam bentuk 20-Hydroxyecdyson atau Ecdysteron berfungsi sebagai moulting stimulan pada krustase. Pada umumnya ecdysteron ditemukan pada krustase baik yang ada di darat maupun yang berada di dalam air seperti kepiting, udang, dan krustase lainnya yang ditemukan secara alami dan berfungsi sebagai pengatur proses penggantian kulit dan mengontrol pembentukan exoskeleton baru untuk menggantikan exoskeleton yang lama. Selain ablasi proses moulting pada udang dapat diinduksi melalui penambahan 20-hydroksi ecdysteron (20 E pada hemolim sehingga fase premoulting dapat diatur sesuai dengan kebutuhan. 20-hydroksiecdysteron dapat diperoleh dari ekstrak tumbuhan di antaranya bayam, asparagus, pakis, dan lain-lain melalui pemisahan dengan ekstraksi, fraksinasi, dan pemurnian dengan HPLC dilanjutkan dengan elusidasi struktur.

Pemberian ekstrak pakis pada induk udang windu untuk memacu terjadinya pergantian kulit dilakukan melalui dengan beberapa konsentrasi menggunakan desain Rancangan Acak Lengkap (RAL. Hasil analisis memperlihatkan bahwa kandungan phytoecdysteron pada pakis perkisar 230-730 mg/L dari larutan ekstrak yang setara dengan 20 g bahan segar. Konsentrasi ECD 25 mg/L, memperlihatkan respon yang paling baik sebagai moulting stimulan. • Gopalan, U.K.; Meenakshikunjamma, P.P.; Purushan, K.S. More serious necrotic lesions than Saprolegnia parasitica.

In the other crustaceans, Achlya racemosa and another Achlya sp. Were also recorded besides S. Experimental infection showed that smaller and thin-shelled crustaceans were more.

• Yaashikaa, P R; Saravanan, A; Kumar, P Senthil 2016-10-01 Bacterial diseases are one of the major problems which affects the production, development and expansion of aqua culture. Are widespread in marine and estuarine environments.

The several pathogenic species are commonly associated with outbreaks of Vibrio species and it is mainly associated with food poisonings. In this research, the occurrence of Vibrio sp. Was studied by the isolation and it is confirmed by the biochemical methods. The growth rate was studied by changing the different operating parameters. Isolation studies were done by using enrichment and selective plating methods. The different biochemical test was carried out and inferred that the isolated organisms were Vibrio choleraee and Vibrio parahaemolyticus.

The antibiotic study was also performed to find out the resistant and sensitivity of the Vibrio species. From the results, it was observed that this can be able to correlate the growth of vibrio species to a limited condition and other environmental parameters for which it will be able to find the remedial measures to prevent the growth and spreading of the diseases. Also the different preservation method was carried out to suppress the growth rate of Vibrio sp. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.

All rights reserved. 2004-01-01 In recent years, expansion of shrimp aquaculture in Vietnam has brought considerable financial benefits to farmers and local communities. In the coastal provinces in the Mekong Delta, brackish shrimp aquaculture is the major economy activity. Extensive shrimp-mangrove culture systems are popularly p • Andi Parenrengi 2011-12-01 Full Text Available Teknologi transgenesis khususnya rekayasa genetik untuk menghasilkan udang windu resisten penyakit merupakan salah satu strategi yang dapat dilakukan dalam upaya pemecahan masalah penyakit yang menimpa budidaya udang windu. Teknologi transgenesis khususnya transfer gen antivirus pada udang windu telah berhasil dilakukan melalui teknik transfeksi. Meskipun demikian optimalisasi komponen teknologi tersebut masih perlu dilakukan. Konsentrasi DNA gen merupakan salah satu komponen teknologi transgenesis yang harus dioptimalkan untuk mendapatkan efisiensi dalam transfer gen.

Penelitian bertujuan untuk mengetahui konsentrasi DNA gen antivirus yang optimal sebagai bahan transfer gen ke embrio menggunakan metode transfeksi. Embrio udang windu yang diperoleh dari hasil pemijahan induk asal Aceh, dikoleksi 5-10 menit setelah memijah dengan kepadatan 625 telur/2 mL. Transfeksi dilakukan dengan menggunakan media larutan transfeksi jetPEI dengan konsentrasi DNA gen antivirus sebagai perlakuan, yakni: 5, 10, dan 15 µg serta kontrol positif (tanpa plasmid DNA dan negatif (tanpa plasmid DNA dan larutan transfeksi, masing-masing 3 ulangan. Embrio hasil transfeksi ditetaskan pada stoples berisi air laut sebanyak 2 L yang diletakkan pada waterbath.

Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa gen antivirus telah berhasil diintroduksi ke embrio udang windu. Hasil analisis ragam menunjukkan bahwa perbedaan konsentrasi DNA (5-15 µg tidak berpengaruh nyata (P>0,05 terhadap daya tetas embrio udang windu.

Analisis ekspresi gen pada larva udang windu juga menunjukkan adanya aktivitas ekspresi gen antivirus pada semua perlakuan konsentrasi DNA, di mana ekspresi gen antivirus pada larva transgenik lebih tinggi dibandingkan dengan kontrol (tanpa transfeksi. Sintasan pasca-larva PL-1 yang didapatkan pada penelitian ini adalah 12,0%; 10,0%; 10,6%; 12,3%; dan 14,2% masing-masing untuk perlakuan konsentrasi plasmid DNA 5 µg, 10 µg, 15 µg, kontrol positif dan negatif, di mana konsentrasi DNA yang berbeda tidak memperlihatkan pengaruh nyata (P>0,05 terhadap sintasan larva PL-1. Hasil penelitian ini berimplikasi bahwa untuk alasan efisiensi, konsentrasi DNA 5 µg disarankan untuk digunakan dalam transfer gen pada embrio udang windu.

• Gunarto Gunarto 2006-06-01 Full Text Available High salinity pond water ranging from 33—45 ppt between July and October is one of the problems occurred in western part of South Sulawesi brackishwater ponds. It is necessary to know if tiger shrimps grow well in such salinity, since the optimum salinity range for the growth of tiger shrimp is 15—25 ppt. The objective of the research is to know the tiger shrimp production at different stocking densities cultured in high salinity pond in mangrove reservoir. Twelve pond compartments of 500 m2 each were arranged randomly for three treatments of shrimp stocking densities i.e. 4, 6, and 8 pcs./m2, where each treatment was in three replications.

The result of study showed that shrimp production at 6 pieces/m2 was higher than that of 4 and 8 pieces/m2, with more efficient feed conversion was obtained in this stocking density (1.3 compared to treatment 4 pieces/m2 (1.5 and treatment 8 pieces/m2 (>3. • Andi Parenrengi 2016-02-01 bahwa rasio RNA/DNA udang windu tumbuh cepat (4,51 berbeda secara nyata (P. • Tendencia Alapide, E.; Verreth, J.A.J.

2011-01-01 White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) has been a big problem to the worldwide shrimp industry. Exposure to stressors related to physicochemical water parameters affect WSSV infection but not all WSSV infections result in outbreaks.

This paper describes a detailed monitoring of important physicochemical w • Tu, Huynh Thi; Silvestre, Frederic; Wang, Neil; Thome, Jean-Pierre; Phuong, Nguyen Thanh; Kestemont, Patrick 2010-11-01 This study examined the advantages of the use of biomarkers as an early warning system by applying it to different shrimp farming systems in Soctrang and Camau provinces, main shrimp producers in Mekong River Delta, Vietnam. Shrimp were collected at 15 different farms divided into four different farming systems: three farms were converted from originally rice paddies into intensive shrimp farming systems (IS1, IS2, IS3); three farms were rice-shrimp integrated farming systems (RS4, RS5, RS6); three farms were intensive farming systems (IS7, IS8, IS9); six farms were extensive shrimp farming systems (From ES1 to ES6). Lipid peroxidation (LPO) and total glutathione (GSH) were measured as well as catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and acetylcholinesterase activities (ACHE). Organ specificity was observed between gills and hepatopancreas with generally higher activity of GST in gills (GSTG) whereas the contrary was observed for LPO level in gills (LPOG). Hierarchical clustering and principal component analysis clearly indicated that shrimp reared in extensive culture system formed a distinct group from those reared in intensive or rice-shrimp integrated systems. CAT in gills (CATG), GPX in gills (GPXG) and hepatopancreas (GPXHP) and ACHE in muscle (ACHEM) of shrimp collected in extensive farms showed a general higher level than those in intensively farmed shrimp.

On the contrary, we observed clear high levels of GSTG and GST in hepatopancreas (GSTHP) and LPOG and hepatopancreas (LPOHP) of shrimp sampled in intensive and rice-shrimp integrated systems. Thus, we propose that LPO and CAT, GPX, GST and ACHE can be used as a set of biomarkers for the assessment of health condition and can discriminate between shrimp cultivated in different farming systems. These findings provide the usefulness of integrating a set of biomarkers to define the health status of shrimp in different shrimp culture systems. • Rumisha, Cyrus; Leermakers, Martine; Elskens, Marc; Mdegela, Robinson H; Gwakisa, Paul; Kochzius, Marc 2017-01-30 The genetic diversity of giant tiger prawns in relation to trace metals (TMs) pollution was analysed using 159 individuals from eight sites at the Tanzanian coast. The seven microsatellites analysed showed high degree of polymorphism (4-44 alleles). The measured genetic diversity (Ho=0.592±0.047) was comparable to that of populations in the Western Indian Ocean. Apart from that, correlation analysis revealed significant negative associations between genetic diversity and TMs pollution (ppollution.

This suggests that TMs affect larvae settlement and it may account for the measured deficiency of heterozygosity. This calls for strengthened pollution control measures in order to conserve this commercially important species. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. • Phuong, Pham Thi Dan; Minh, Nguyen Cong; Cuong, Hoang Ngoc; Van Minh, Nguyen; Han, Nguyen The; Van Hoa, Nguyen; Yen, Ha Thi Hai; Trung, Trang Si 2017-06-01 Shrimp heads are considered as a potential source for the recovery of many valuable components such as chitin, protein and carotenoids.

In the present study, both protein hydrolysate and chitin/chitosan were recovered using combination of physical, biological and chemical treatments. Shrimp heads were separated from liquid phase by a facile and efficient physical pretreatment. The liquid fraction was then hydrolyzed using formic acid and vacuum concentrated to obtain an astaxanthin-rich protein hydrolysate. The solid fraction was used to produce chitin by deproteination and demineralization.

The hydrolysate consisted of a high astaxanthin (192 ppm) and protein (26.3 wt%) content. Chitosan prepared from chitin showed a high degree of deacetylation (85.4%) with low protein (0.25 wt%) and mineral (0.22 wt%) contents. The relative crystalline structure of the chitin and chitosan were 54.7 and 10.4%, respectively. The deacetylation of chitin was confirmed by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy. The present procedure approached to produce maximum valuable components including astaxanthin-rich protein hydrolysate and chitin/chitosan from shrimp head waste. • Ngo Xuan, T.; Verreth, J.A.J.; Vlak, J.M.; Jong, de M.C.M.

2014-01-01 White spot syndrome virus (WSSV), a rod-shaped double-stranded DNA virus, is an infectious agent causing fatal disease in shrimp farming around the globe. Within shrimp populations WSSV is transmitted very fast, however, the modes and dynamics of transmission of this virus are not well understood. I • Matthew Baranski Full Text Available Transcriptome sequencing using Illumina RNA-seq was performed on populations of black tiger shrimp from India.

Samples were collected from (i four landing centres around the east coastline (EC of India, (ii survivors of a severe WSSV infection during pond culture (SUR and (iii the Andaman Islands (AI in the Bay of Bengal. Equal quantities of purified total RNA from homogenates of hepatopancreas, muscle, nervous tissue, intestinal tract, heart, gonad, gills, pleopod and lymphoid organs were combined to create AI, EC and SUR pools for RNA sequencing. De novo transcriptome assembly resulted in 136,223 contigs (minimum size 100 base pairs, bp with a total length 61 Mb, an average length of 446 bp and an average coverage of 163× across all pools. Approximately 16% of contigs were annotated with BLAST hit information and gene ontology annotations. A total of 473,620 putative SNPs/indels were identified. An Illumina iSelect genotyping array containing 6,000 SNPs was developed and used to genotype 1024 offspring belonging to seven full-sibling families. A total of 3959 SNPs were mapped to 44 linkage groups.

The linkage groups consisted of between 16-129 and 13-130 markers, of length between 139-10.8 and 109.1-10.5 cM and with intervals averaging between 1.2 and 0.9 cM for the female and male maps respectively. The female map was 28% longer than the male map (4060 and 2917 cM respectively with a 1.6 higher recombination rate observed for female compared to male meioses. This approach has substantially increased expressed sequence and DNA marker resources for tiger shrimp and is a useful resource for QTL mapping and association studies for evolutionarily and commercially important traits. • Gunarto Gunarto 2016-11-01 Full Text Available Penelitian bertujuan untuk membandingkan pengaruh penambahan sumber C- karbohidrat (tepung tapioka dan fermentasi probiotik pada budidaya udang windu dengan pola intensif di tambak terutama melihat efeknya terhadap perbaikan kualitas air, pertumbuhan, sintasan, dan produksi udang windu. Enam petak tambak masing-masing ukuran sekitar 4.000 m2, setelah selesai tahap persiapan tambak (pengeringan, pembalikan tanah dasar, pengapuran, pengisian air, dan pemupukan, kemudian tambak ditebari tokolan udang windu PL-25 dengan padat tebar 20 ekor/m2.

Tiga perlakuan diuji yaitu A. Penambahan tepung tapioka ke air tambak dengan dosis 62% dari total pakan yang diberikan per hari dan diberikan dalam selang waktu lima hari sekali selama masa pemeliharaan pada bulan pertama dan kemudian dengan selang waktu tiga hari sekali selama masa pemeliharaan bulan kedua hingga menjelang panen; B. Pemberian fermentasi probiotik ke air tambak sebanyak 5 mg/L/minggu; dan C. Pemberian fermentasi probiotik ke air tambak sebanyak 10 mg/L/minggu. Masing-masing perlakuan dengan dua ulangan. Sampling pertumbuhan, kualitas air, dan bakteri dilakukan setiap dua minggu sekali.

Sintasan, produksi, dan nilai konversi pakan dihitung setelah udang dipanen. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pemberian tepung tapioka menyebabkan konsentrasi amoniak relatif lebih rendah di perlakuan A daripada di perlakuan B dan C, namun menunjukkan perbedaan yang tidak nyata (P>0,05 di antara ketiga perlakuan tersebut. Bahan Organik Total (BOT pada hari ke-112 di perlakuan C paling rendah dan menunjukkan perbedaan yang.

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