1001 Electrical Engineering Solved Problems Pdf Writer 5,0/5 3239votes

Fitting Newtonian Gravitational Constant with Microscopic Physical Constants Authors:, Comments: 29 Pages. Preprints20119 By considering two virtual gravitational constants assumed to be associated with electromagnetic and strong interactions, in a theoretical and verifiable approach, we make an attempt to estimate the Newtonian gravitational constant from microscopic elementary physical constants. With respect to Fermi's weak coupling constant and root mean square radius of proton, estimated value of the Newtonian gravitational constant is 6.67454X10(-11) m3/kg/sec2 and our estimated value is 6.679856X10(-11) m3/kg/sec2. Category: [21596] [] submitted on 2017-12-24 09:49:58. An Introduction to 'Spirit-Filled Medicine' (An Exploration in Theology of Medicine) Authors:, Comments: 10 Pages. This paper has been submitted to Canadian journal of pentecostal-charismatic christianity In the light of the fact that proper discussion of theology of medicine is quite rare, this short article highlights the fundamental problem with modern (Western) medicine. China has taken a step forward by recognizing their cultural heritage called TCM.

Mar 21, 2005. Here's a wide-ranging collection of practice problems typical of the FE exam in every respect. Alternative view 1 of 1001 Solved Engineering Fundamentals Problems / Edition 3. Customer Reviews. Average Review. Write a Review. Share This Item. Facebook; Twitter; Pinterest; Google Plus.

Of course it must be acknowledged that modern (Western) medicine has been very advanced, but also many problems such as side effects and also many toxic materials due to synthetic materials. It is also well known that chemotherapy has a chance to work at a miserable rate of less than 20%, so it is reasonable to argue that the 21st century requires a conceptual, new approach to treatment. Category: [21595] [] submitted on 2017-12-24 09:52:13. Applications of Neutrosophic Membership Function in Describing Identity Dynamics in Missiology and Modern Day Ecclesiology (An Exploration in Mathematical Theology) Authors:, Comments: 10 Pages. This paper has been submitted to Canadian journal of pentecostal-charismatic christianity As Paul Hiebert called it in his paper: “The flaws of excluded middle,” people especially in Asia and Africa can adopt a “middle Earth” view, i.e. A world where both rationality and supra-rationality can co-exist. Such an “included middle” worldview can be viewed in terms of Neutrosophic Membership Function too.

Similarly the dynamics of identity change between outer faiths and Christianity is often a long and complex process, and we submit that it can be modelled as a spectrum, of which some people described the process as C1-C6. This spectrum can be viewed in terms of Neutrosophic Membership function. In this paper, we offer a fresh look at these problem using two new concepts: Liquid church and also Neutrosophic Membership function. It is our hope that our model, which may be called “Neutrosophic Liquid Ecclesiology,” can shed some light on the interaction and dynamics in Missiology and modern day Ecclesiology, especially in Asia and Africa context. All in all, this paper may be considered as an exploration of a new subject in doing theology: Mathematical Theology. Category: [21594] [] submitted on 2017-12-24 11:13:39. CV For A Self Taught Math & Science Problem Solver and or Fixxer Authors: Comments: 5 Pages.

I will attempt any problem in any subject, just provide some background. The objective of this paper is to show people that I am now for hire($).

While many scientist and mathematicians are bound by the laws of nature and physics,I am able to look beyond the laws of nature and physics and come up with solutions for virtually every problem(See my papers).While my degrees are in education I have had a hobby of submitting unsolicited solutions to the CIA for the last 20 years for free. Whether they use the solutions of not is not relevant or if they deny it or confirm it. What is relevant is that if you have a problem and are willing to pay for a solution via paypal Im willing to solve it. Submit it to Ricardo.gil@sbcglobal.net. I ask for a fair price for a viable solution. '& Ye shall know the truth and any project is achievable in 18 mos or less.'

Category: [21593] [] submitted on 2017-12-23 16:09:27. Kalman Folding 5.5: EKF in Python with System Identification Authors: Comments: 31 Pages. Creative Commons 4.0 license: Kalman Folding 5 presents an Extended Kalman Filter in Mathematica. Python is much more accessible to average practitioners. In this follow-up article, we write a very general, foldable EKF in Python, verify it against Mathematica using sympy, Python's package for symbolic mathematics.

We apply it to a spinning dashpot and demonstrate both state estimation and system identification from observing only one angle over time. It is remarkable that a complete dynamical description of eight states and parameters can be recovered from measurements of a single, scalar value. Category: [21592] [] submitted on 2017-12-23 23:15:15.

The Making of Planet and Gravity Authors: Comments: 15 Pages. Gravity is not force of attraction.

An one way concentrative potential is created by head-on congregation of particles from gentle pairing to high speed collision. It can be started by electromagnetic attraction or disturbance in the environment internally or externally. A terrestrial planet, for example, is the coalition of elements. It grows in the process of construction.

The coalition builds the body and the force of keeping it together, gravity. Category: [21591] [] submitted on 2017-12-23 23:33:31. The Making of Star and Solar System Authors: Comments: 11 Pages.

To me, the gravity of super-sized planet can trigger global nuclear reactions and become a star. The expelled particles embrace objects in it's path and create a space cyclone, solar system. Our Solar System is a cyclone powered by the vortex force of a single dominating star, the Sun, in weightless space. The Sun regulates the orbits and reduces the collision of all plants and alike within it's reach. The question is, would it be second star if Jupiter got a chance to gather more mass?

Category: [21590] [] submitted on 2017-12-23 23:37:50. The Making of Black Hole And Galaxy Authors: Comments: 9 Pages. To me, a star is analogous to a constant and all directional nuclear exploding jet engine. Expelling particles would create it's opposite imploding force. By squeezing mass and energy into single point, I don't see other action can create stronger concentrative mass and force than implosive compression. Under this constant compression, a star can reach it's limit of structure and go supernova.

The surface activities would radiate the frequency beyond our detection, a black hole disappeared from our view. Massive black hole can create its' own super space cyclone. Other subsystems can be caught by the storm and form a galaxy, a superset collection of solar and planetary systems by nature's inheritance and self-similarity. Considering nature's capability of creating such varieties of microorganism; Planets, stars, galaxies, and alike will continue to surprise us with our slowly opening eyes.

Yet, the universe can only be seen by anyone in very short blink. Category: [21589] [] submitted on 2017-12-23 23:41:31. From Redshift To Cosmic Background Radiation Authors: Comments: 56 Pages. Doppler redshift of radiations is dominating in all observations.

And, path loss of frequency causes exponentially proportional redshift. Radiation, over space, can continue to stretch below visual and infrared detection, the source would merged into the background (CBR). In the meantime, space is filled with dominating low frequency below visible radiations which can come from outside of the visible universe.

Category: [21587] [] submitted on 2017-12-23 23:58:41. Why Quantum Jump Essay Authors: Comments: 4 Pages. Atomic electron transition appears leaping from one energy level to another. The issue is, atomic particles are too small and too fast for our detectors to recognize their action and identity. I believe it is due to the sensors can only detect and register the repeated trajectory.

Particle would have to revolving on the same orbit long enough. Otherwise, it would not trigger the reaction of the detectors. Transitional trajectory is short, and it does not repeat.

It can not be detected, hence, jump. Category: [21585] [] submitted on 2017-12-24 00:05:22. Spacetime Curvature Paradox Essay Authors: Comments: 7 Pages. Space is in our hands and all around us. We have learned to manipulate matter and energy since our first existence on Earth, but never space. It is the absolute complement of the physical universe. It is impossible to bend space since it has no boundary and surface.

Space can not have boundary. Otherwise, it would separate space from something else outside of the space. Neither the boundary or surface of the space nor the outside of the space can be defined as anything other than space. On the contrarily, we can bend time by varying clock ticks. It is true for all artificial measurements.

Space has natural existence, time is artificial measurement. Space is absolutely recyclable, NEVER TIME BE RECYCLED. And, space is fundamental, it is independent of mass, energy, and everything else. Space and time can not go together. Category: [21583] [] submitted on 2017-12-24 00:15:58.

Quantum Noise Reduction Authors: Comments: 28 Pages. This method, called atomic spin squeezing, works by redistributing the uncertainty unevenly between two components of spin in these measurements systems, which operate at the quantum scale. [18] Researchers from the University of Cambridge have taken a peek into the secretive domain of quantum mechanics.

[17] Scientists at the University of Geneva (UNIGE), Switzerland, recently reengineered their data processing, demonstrating that 16 million atoms were entangled in a one-centimetre crystal. [15] The fact that it is possible to retrieve this lost information reveals new insight into the fundamental nature of quantum measurements, mainly by supporting the idea that quantum measurements contain both quantum and classical components. [14] Researchers blur the line between classical and quantum physics by connecting chaos and entanglement. [13] Yale University scientists have reached a milestone in their efforts to extend the durability and dependability of quantum information. [12] Using lasers to make data storage faster than ever. [11] Some three-dimensional materials can exhibit exotic properties that only exist in 'lower' dimensions. For example, in one-dimensional chains of atoms that emerge within a bulk sample, electrons can separate into three distinct entities, each carrying information about just one aspect of the electron's identity—spin, charge, or orbit.

The spinon, the entity that carries information about electron spin, has been known to control magnetism in certain insulating materials whose electron spins can point in any direction and easily flip direction. Now, a new study just published in Science reveals that spinons are also present in a metallic material in which the orbital movement of electrons around the atomic nucleus is the driving force behind the material's strong magnetism. [10] Currently studying entanglement in condensed matter systems is of great interest. This interest stems from the fact that some behaviors of such systems can only be explained with the aid of entanglement. [9] Researchers from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and the University of Cambridge in the UK have demonstrated that it is possible to directly generate an electric current in a magnetic material by rotating its magnetization.

[8] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Category: [21579] [] submitted on 2017-12-22 12:57:33. Exotic State of Matter Authors: Comments: 20 Pages. Using ultracold atoms, researchers at Heidelberg University have found an exotic state of matter where the constituent particles pair up when limited to two dimensions.

[32] Neutron diffraction at the Australian Centre for Neutron Scattering has clarified the absence of magnetic order and classified the superconductivity of a new next-generation of superconductors in a paper published in Europhysics Letters. [31] A potential new state of matter is being reported in the journal Nature, with research showing that among superconducting materials in high magnetic fields, the phenomenon of electronic symmetry breaking is common.

[30] Researchers from the University of Geneva (UNIGE) in Switzerland and the Technical University Munich in Germany have lifted the veil on the electronic characteristics of high-temperature superconductors. Their research, published in Nature Communications, shows that the electronic densities measured in these superconductors are a combination of two separate effects. As a result, they propose a new model that suggests the existence of two coexisting states rather than competing ones postulated for the past thirty years, a small revolution in the world of superconductivity. [29] A team led by scientists at the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory combined powerful magnetic pulses with some of the brightest X-rays on the planet to discover a surprising 3-D arrangement of a material's electrons that appears closely linked to a mysterious phenomenon known as high-temperature superconductivity. [28] Advanced x-ray technique reveals surprising quantum excitations that persist through materials with or without superconductivity. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.

The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement. Category: [21576] [] submitted on 2017-12-22 17:30:34. Photon Model with Duality of Particle and Wave Authors: Comments: 13 Pages.

Light is quantum which indicates the duality of particles and waves. Therefore, it is not possible to make a model of light to explain two antithetical characters at the same time. But, I succeeded to draw a model of light having simultaneously both characteristics of particles and waves based on “energy body theory”. The reason why light makes interference fringes in Young double slit experiment became clear by this. Particularly, the reason why interference fringes are made, even when photons are emitted one by one, if many photons are emitted, were also made clear. More, this photon model gives the reason to the phenomena such as reflection, refraction and invariable velocity of light. Category: [21575] [] submitted on 2017-12-22 18:28:16.

Navier Stockes Equation, Integrals of Motion and Generalization of the Equation of Continuity of the Flow of Matter to the Theory of Relativity Authors: Comments: 9 Pages. Manuscript is copyrighted. The use of N-S equation is of outmost important for everyday life: airplanes, ships, underwater ships, etc. So, the Clay Institute promises 1 000 000 dollars for a good solution. Present paper is about Estonian author confidence, that he have solved the problem.

Category: [21572] [] submitted on 2017-12-23 01:17:56. Triviality of Twin Prime Conjecture Authors: Comments: 1 Page. I am not a professional mathematician, so if there is some silly mistake or misconceptions, please point out. In this small paper, I have argued very simply that 'Twin Prime Conjecture' is quite obvious and there is nothing to prove. In fact, it reduces to the hypothesis that prime numbers are infinite in number if we accept the quite random pattern of occurrences of of prime numbers on number line. Category: [21571] [] submitted on 2017-12-23 03:01:40. Building a Surgical Simulator that uses Only Free and Open Source Software Authors: Comments: 5 Pages.

Preprint The present paper explores the possibility of building a surgical simulator that uses only free and open source software. A careful review of the literature on the software components required for surgical simulation reveals that new free and open source surgical simulation software can be built using already existing free and open source software components. This paper identifies some of the already existing free and open source software components that may easily be put together to create new surgical simulation software. The present paper also discusses how these software components could be assembled together, by developing software that integrates the software components.

Creating the new surgical simulation software assumes significance since currently there are few (if any) free and open source surgical simulation software packages available. Category: [21570] [] submitted on 2017-12-23 02:59:25.

Secret Movement of Quantum Particles Authors: Comments: 28 Pages. Researchers from the University of Cambridge have taken a peek into the secretive domain of quantum mechanics. [17] Scientists at the University of Geneva (UNIGE), Switzerland, recently reengineered their data processing, demonstrating that 16 million atoms were entangled in a one-centimetre crystal. [15] The fact that it is possible to retrieve this lost information reveals new insight into the fundamental nature of quantum measurements, mainly by supporting the idea that quantum measurements contain both quantum and classical components.

[14] Researchers blur the line between classical and quantum physics by connecting chaos and entanglement. [13] Yale University scientists have reached a milestone in their efforts to extend the durability and dependability of quantum information. [12] Using lasers to make data storage faster than ever. [11] Some three-dimensional materials can exhibit exotic properties that only exist in 'lower' dimensions. For example, in one-dimensional chains of atoms that emerge within a bulk sample, electrons can separate into three distinct entities, each carrying information about just one aspect of the electron's identity—spin, charge, or orbit. The spinon, the entity that carries information about electron spin, has been known to control magnetism in certain insulating materials whose electron spins can point in any direction and easily flip direction. Now, a new study just published in Science reveals that spinons are also present in a metallic material in which the orbital movement of electrons around the atomic nucleus is the driving force behind the material's strong magnetism.

[10] Currently studying entanglement in condensed matter systems is of great interest. This interest stems from the fact that some behaviors of such systems can only be explained with the aid of entanglement. [9] Researchers from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and the University of Cambridge in the UK have demonstrated that it is possible to directly generate an electric current in a magnetic material by rotating its magnetization. [8] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.

The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Category: [21566] [] submitted on 2017-12-22 08:59:54.

Weyl Particles Detected Authors: Comments: 20 Pages. At TU Wien recently, particles known as 'Weyl fermions' were discovered in materials with strong interaction between electrons.

Just like light particles, they have no mass but nonetheless they move extremely slowly. [13] Quantum behavior plays a crucial role in novel and emergent material properties, such as superconductivity and magnetism. [12] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other.

The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on 'boson sampling'. [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information.

In August 2013, the achievement of 'fully deterministic' quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods.

The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information. Category: [21565] [] submitted on 2017-12-22 10:05:27. Explaining Duality Without Complementarity or 'Which Way' and Also Retro-Causality and Non-Locality Authors: Comments: 1 Page. Boltzmann and Gibbs Definition of Entropy Authors: Comments: 25 Pages.

Researchers at UCM and CSS have encountered a partial violation of the second law of thermodynamics in a quantum system known as Hofstadter lattice. [13] Any understanding of the irreversibility of the arrow of time should account the quantum nature of the world that surrounds us.

[12] Entropy, the measure of disorder in a physical system, is something that physicists understand well when systems are at equilibrium, meaning there's no external force throwing things out of kilter. But new research by Brown University physicists takes the idea of entropy out of its equilibrium comfort zone. [11] Could scientists use the Second Law of Thermodynamics on your chewing muscles to work out when you are going to die? According to research published in the International Journal of Exergy, the level of entropy, or thermodynamic disorder, in the chewing muscles in your jaw increases with each mouthful. This entropy begins to accumulate from the moment you're 'on solids' until your last meal, but measuring it at any given point in your life could be used to estimate life expectancy. [10] There is also connection between statistical physics and evolutionary biology, since the arrow of time is working in the biological evolution also.

From the standpoint of physics, there is one essential difference between living things and inanimate clumps of carbon atoms: The former tend to be much better at capturing energy from their environment and dissipating that energy as heat. [8] This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7] The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems.

The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology. Category: [21563] [] submitted on 2017-12-21 12:03:44. Experimental Demonstration of Quantum Tunneling in IBM Quantum Computer Authors:,, Comments: 5 Pages. According to Feynman, we should make nature to be quantum mechanical to simulate it better.

Simulating quantum systems in a computer had been remained a challenging problem to tackle. It's mainly in case of a large quantum system. However, Feynman's 1982 conjecture that `physics can be simulated using a quantum computer other than using a Turing machine or a classical computer' has been proved to be correct. It is widely known that quantum computers have superior power as compared to classical computers in simulating quantum systems efficiently.

Here we report the experimental realization of quantum tunneling through potential barriers by simulating it in the IBM quantum computer, which here acts as a universal quantum simulator. We take a two-qubit system for visualizing the tunneling process, which has a truly quantum nature. We clearly observe the tunneling through a barrier by our experimental results. This experiment inspires us to simulate other quantum mechanical problems which possess such quantum nature.

Category: [21562] [] submitted on 2017-12-21 12:43:25. Conjecture that there is no a Square of an Odd Number to be as Well Lychrel Number Authors: Comments: 3 Pages. In this paper I make the following two conjectures: (I) There exist an infinity of squares of odd numbers n^2 such that n^2 + R(n^2), where R(n^2) is the number obtained reversing the digits of n^2, is a palindromic number; (II) There is no a square of an odd number to be as well Lychrel number.

Note that a Lychrel number is a natural number that cannot form a palindrome through the iterative process of repeatedly reversing its digits and adding the resulting numbers (process sometimes called the 196-algorithm, 196 being the smallest such number) – see the sequence A023108 in OEIS. Category: [21560] [] submitted on 2017-12-21 13:57:54. Brief Discussion on the Nature of Time Authors: Comments: 7 Pages. If our universe is blinking, off and on, a trillion times each second, then how does time actually work? And why do we perceive sequential time, where one event follows a seeming cause and effect?

This short ebook describes how time actually works, and what makes it a coherent illusion. First, all of time is simultaneous. There is no backwards or forwards with time.

When the universe blinks on, each cycle - all of time and space is newly constructed, with particles that did not exist one second ago. Sequential time is an illusion that has to do with the nature of perception and the ego. The massive present moment contains all of time, every second of every year, past, present, and future. When you travel thru time, you do not travel backwards or forwards. Rather, you are moving 'sideways' across parallel timelines, that exist within the present moment.

For those that want to solve the paradox, killing your grandfather in the past will not change your current reality, because for each person, there are a near-infinite number of probable timelines that exist simultaneously. Graphs and references are provided. #blinkinguniverse RLighthouse.com Category: [21559] [] submitted on 2017-12-21 14:33:50. Blinking Universe: Alternate Mathematical Solution Authors: Comments: 6 Pages.

This short technical paper presents an alternate mathematical approach for determining the blinking frequency of our universe. The source for this alternate idea comes from an email sent to this author in May 2015. The source author prefers to remain anonymous. Basically, Let's think about the fundamental unit of the universe as a classical entity. The energy of such a classical entity, using the equipartition theorem, translates the number of degrees of freedom into 'units' of k_B*T (where T is the temperature and k_B is the well-known Boltzmann constant). In this way, we find that the fundamental energy is 3*k_B*T (6 d.o.f.).

We use a foundational temperature, consistent with the anthropic principle, of the freezing point (and melting point) of the essential object for existence - water. Using this temperature, we obtain a fundamental energy of ~70.6 meV. Calculation is as follows: 70.6 meV / ( hbar pi^4) = 1.1 THz. Note that the pi^4 in general is pi^D, where D is the number of spacetime dimensions in existence. Each reader must comprehend that our universe is literally blinking off and on, at 1.1 trillion times every second (THz). For those unconvinced that our universe is blinking, please read “The First Periodic Table for Elementary Particles,” or “1024 Elementary Particles” which provides compelling mathematical evidence. Also see youtube: Colonel Philip Corso, THE DAY AFTER ROSWELL; author comments on the Army's investigation of the 1947 Roswell vehicle; 'We were never able to figure out how the propulsion system works.

We only know it has something to do with blinking.' Category: [21558] [] submitted on 2017-12-21 14:37:23.

Elementary Particles: Solving the Antimatter Problem Authors: Comments: 8 Pages. This short paper presents mathematical evidence that the “positron” found in numerous laboratory experiments - is actually a probable version of the muon neutrino, which is ordinary matter, not antimatter.

This new evidence is based on the 1024-QAM model as the first Periodic Table for Elementary Particles. There are 16 probable versions of the muon neutrino with one third of the mass of an electron. 4 of these have the same charge-to-mass ratio as a common electron.

Another 4 have twice the charge-to-mass as a common electron, but with the opposite charge (+2/3), causing them to move in the opposite direction in a magnetic field. To complicate matters further, note that there are 16 probable versions of an electron, with 4 different charges (0, -1, -1/3, +2/3). A 1024-QAM table was previously presented that graphically displays how all elementary particles are related, similar to the Standard Periodic Table in chemistry. This paper concludes there is no antimatter available in our universe. All such events can be explained as ordinary matter. Category: [21557] [] submitted on 2017-12-21 14:43:07. Synthetic Food Production: Solving Global Hunger Authors: Comments: 9 Pages.

This short technical paper presents a concept with the potential to solve the global hunger problem. A Synthetic Food Production facility is described which can provide daily food supplies for thousands of people at extremely low cost.

Using the representative example, and 5 to 10 people operating the facility, it is possible to provide up to 10,000 ears (about 200 bushels) of sweet corn per day. Basically, the process converts electricity into instant food, by time-forwarding the germinated seeds. The facility is minimally self-sustaining, and could be utilized for a wide variety of vegetables and fruits. The process can also be adapted for use on Mars, or any planet with light and a source of water. Category: [21556] [] submitted on 2017-12-21 15:12:29. Neutron Tracks Quantum Entanglement Authors: Comments: 26 Pages.

Scientists at the University of Geneva (UNIGE), Switzerland, recently reengineered their data processing, demonstrating that 16 million atoms were entangled in a one-centimetre crystal. [15] The fact that it is possible to retrieve this lost information reveals new insight into the fundamental nature of quantum measurements, mainly by supporting the idea that quantum measurements contain both quantum and classical components. [14] Researchers blur the line between classical and quantum physics by connecting chaos and entanglement. [13] Yale University scientists have reached a milestone in their efforts to extend the durability and dependability of quantum information. [12] Using lasers to make data storage faster than ever. [11] Some three-dimensional materials can exhibit exotic properties that only exist in 'lower' dimensions. For example, in one-dimensional chains of atoms that emerge within a bulk sample, electrons can separate into three distinct entities, each carrying information about just one aspect of the electron's identity—spin, charge, or orbit.

The spinon, the entity that carries information about electron spin, has been known to control magnetism in certain insulating materials whose electron spins can point in any direction and easily flip direction. Now, a new study just published in Science reveals that spinons are also present in a metallic material in which the orbital movement of electrons around the atomic nucleus is the driving force behind the material's strong magnetism. [10] Currently studying entanglement in condensed matter systems is of great interest.

This interest stems from the fact that some behaviors of such systems can only be explained with the aid of entanglement. [9] Researchers from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and the University of Cambridge in the UK have demonstrated that it is possible to directly generate an electric current in a magnetic material by rotating its magnetization. [8] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.

The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Category: [21555] [] submitted on 2017-12-21 22:32:37. Quantum Mechanics in Multiply Connected Spaces Authors: Comments: 23 Pages. This paper is an extract from my PhD thesis GEOMETRICAL AND TOPOLOGICAL METHODS IN CLASSICAL AND QUANTUM PHYSICS at Monash University in Australia.

The paper was published in J. Gen in 1996 under my name and my supervisor name. This paper analyses quantum mechanics in multiply connected spaces. It is shown that the multiple connectedness of the configuration space of a physical system can determine the quantum nature of physical observables, such as the angular momentum. In particular, quantum mechanics in compactified Kaluza Klein spaces is examined. These compactified spaces give rise to an additional angular momentum which can adopt half integral values and therefore may be identified with the intrinsic spin of a quantum particle. Category: [21554] [] submitted on 2017-12-22 00:57:12.

To Study on Examples! Nikitin V.N., Nikitin I.v. The Hypothesis of Emergence of Extraordinary Events on Earth – the Movement of Power Educations on the Internal Surface of the Pacific Plateau Causes a Tsunami, and on His Borders – Earthquakes and Volcanoe Authors:, Comments: 2 Pages. The hypothesis of emergence of extraordinary events on Earth – the movement of power educations on the internal surface of the Pacific plateau causes a tsunami, and on his borders – earthquakes and volcanoes.

Category: [21553] [] submitted on 2017-12-22 03:05:59. Correct Quantum Gravity is a Mechanical Effect Induced by Dynamic-Mass of Light’s Quanta Authors: Comments: 41 Pages. In its natural state the electron is represented by superimposed quantum states.

This is the phase of linear unitary evolution, or U Phase, described by Schrodinger equation. Whereas, when we carry out a measurement (M), it took place a reduction of the state vectors(R Process): we have the wave function collapse (WFC) of the measured quantum object (QO). The M, thus, produces a big changes on the physical properties of the observed particle. How do these changes happen?

What is the secret mechanism which creates the WFC? We don’t know. With this paper we try to introduce a new parameter, induced by the electro-magnetic radiation (EMR), which can help us discern the doubts about the R Process, and try to find a continuity in order to link the U Phase to the R Process, so contrasting at the moment. The new parameter could be a gravity and quantum effect, when we try to make a M of a subatomic object. What is this effect represented? It is a gravitational effect, since it is a mass-effect, a mechanical action induced by quanta of EMR: therefore, it is also a quantum effect.

The photon (P) is indispensable to carry out a M. No M can be carried out without using the EMR. Calculus show that a P of the optic band hits an electron with a dynamic-mass, a radiation pressure, a pushing momentum equal to 1.32510-22[gcm/s]. Thus, we can infer it is a quantum gravitational effect to cause the WFC of the QO undergoing the M. In short, it could be essentially the mechanical action represented by the gravitational mass effect of light’s quanta to induce the WFC and the Measurement’s Paradox and, likely, make a starting point to a Correct Quantum Gravity. Category: [21552] [] submitted on 2017-12-22 04:38:16. Does the Deflection of High-Energy Photons Contradict General Relativity?

Authors: Comments: 3 Pages. According to the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), photons and rotating neutrinos produce around them discs in the Einstein spacetime - there is obligatory the Einstein formula E = Mcc, where E is the photon/neutrino energy (the rotational energy) and M is the mass of photon/neutrino disc. In the discs, when they interact with fermions, there are created virtual pairs. Due to the quantum phenomena, the Principle of Equivalence (PE) is locally “broken” for photons with energy higher than 10 GeV - it leads to the incorrect conclusion that the deflection of high-energy photons contradicts general relativity. Here we show that general relativity describes correctly the bending of high-energy photons by masses when the weak interactions of the photon discs with matter are eliminated.

Category: [21550] [] submitted on 2017-12-21 08:23:56. Conjecture that there is no a Poulet Number to be as Well Lychrel Number Authors: Comments: 2 Pages. In this paper I make the following two conjectures: (I) There exist an infinity of Poulet numbers P such that P + R(P), where R(P) is the number obtained reversing the digits of P, is a palindromic number; (II) There is no a Poulet number to be as well Lychrel number. Note that a Lychrel number is a natural number that cannot form a palindrome through the iterative process of repeatedly reversing its digits and adding the resulting numbers (process sometimes called the 196-algorithm, 196 being the smallest such number) – see the sequence A023108 in OEIS. Category: [21549] [] submitted on 2017-12-21 11:17:02. Hybrid Quantum Coupling Authors: Comments: 43 Pages.

Concerning the development of quantum memories for the realization of global quantum networks, scientists of the Quantum Dynamics Division led by Professor Gerhard Rempe at the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics (MPQ) have now achieved a major breakthrough: they demonstrated the long-lived storage of a photonic qubit on a single atom trapped in an optical resonator. [26] Achieving strong light-matter interaction at the quantum level has always been a central task in quantum physics since the emergence of quantum information and quantum control. [25] Operation at the single-photon level raises the possibility of developing entirely new communication and computing devices, ranging from hardware random number generators to quantum computers.

[24] Considerable interest in new single-photon detector technologies has been scaling in this past decade. [23] Engineers develop key mathematical formula for driving quantum experiments. [22] Physicists are developing quantum simulators, to help solve problems that are beyond the reach of conventional computers. [21] Engineers at Australia's University of New South Wales have invented a radical new architecture for quantum computing, based on novel 'flip-flop qubits', that promises to make the large-scale manufacture of quantum chips dramatically cheaper-and easier-than thought possible.

[20] A team of researchers from the U.S. And Italy has built a quantum memory device that is approximately 1000 times smaller than similar devices— small enough to install on a chip. [19] The cutting edge of data storage research is working at the level of individual atoms and molecules, representing the ultimate limit of technological miniaturisation. [18] This is an important clue for our theoretical understanding of optically controlled magnetic data storage media. [17] A crystalline material that changes shape in response to light could form the heart of novel light-activated devices.

[16] Category: [21547] [] submitted on 2017-12-21 10:07:50. Large-Scale Simulation of Quarks Authors: Comments: 14 Pages. The Nuclear Physics with Lattice Quantum Chromodynamics Collaboration (NPLQCD), under the umbrella of the U.S.

Quantum Chromodynamics Collaboration, performed the first model-independent calculation of the rate for proton-proton fusion directly from the dynamics of quarks and gluons using numerical techniques. [11] Nuclear physicists are now poised to embark on a new journey of discovery into the fundamental building blocks of the nucleus of the atom.

[10] The drop of plasma was created in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). It is made up of two types of subatomic particles: quarks and gluons.

Quarks are the building blocks of particles like protons and neutrons, while gluons are in charge of the strong interaction force between quarks. The new quark-gluon plasma is the hottest liquid that has ever been created in a laboratory at 4 trillion C (7 trillion F). Fitting for a plasma like the one at the birth of the universe. [9] Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions. Category: [21544] [] submitted on 2017-12-20 10:04:24. Excitons for Quantum Computing Authors: Comments: 43 Pages.

To build tomorrow's quantum computers, some researchers are turning to dark excitons, which are bound pairs of an electron and the absence of an electron called a hole. [27] Concerning the development of quantum memories for the realization of global quantum networks, scientists of the Quantum Dynamics Division led by Professor Gerhard Rempe at the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics (MPQ) have now achieved a major breakthrough: they demonstrated the long-lived storage of a photonic qubit on a single atom trapped in an optical resonator. [26] Achieving strong light-matter interaction at the quantum level has always been a central task in quantum physics since the emergence of quantum information and quantum control. [25] Operation at the single-photon level raises the possibility of developing entirely new communication and computing devices, ranging from hardware random number generators to quantum computers. [24] Considerable interest in new single-photon detector technologies has been scaling in this past decade.

[23] Engineers develop key mathematical formula for driving quantum experiments. [22] Physicists are developing quantum simulators, to help solve problems that are beyond the reach of conventional computers. [21] Engineers at Australia's University of New South Wales have invented a radical new architecture for quantum computing, based on novel 'flip-flop qubits', that promises to make the large-scale manufacture of quantum chips dramatically cheaper-and easier-than thought possible. [20] A team of researchers from the U.S. And Italy has built a quantum memory device that is approximately 1000 times smaller than similar devices— small enough to install on a chip.

[19] The cutting edge of data storage research is working at the level of individual atoms and molecules, representing the ultimate limit of technological miniaturisation. [18] This is an important clue for our theoretical understanding of optically controlled magnetic data storage media. [17] Category: [21543] [] submitted on 2017-12-20 12:03:05.

Who Needs Dark Matter? Is the Galactic Rotation Anomaly an Optical Illusion? Authors: Comments: 5 Pages.

Links to previous paper at In an earlier paper, “Who Needs Dark Matter? An Alternative Explanation for the Galactic Rotation Anomaly,” this author examined a possible electromagnetic phenomenon as an explanation for the ‘galactic rotation anomaly,’ whereby the rotational speeds of stars in a spiral galaxy exhibit a relatively constant value despite increasing radius. There, this author assumed that angular rotation speed remained relatively constant, so as to preserve the stability of the spiral arms as they rotate. Several other authors’ theories were presented along with one by this author himself, which cited the magnetic field within the plane of a galaxy resulting from rotation by both the spherical galactic core and flattened ‘disk’ containing the spiral arms as possibly yielding the constant angular speed.

However, many galactic rotation curves exhibit constant tangential rather than angular rotation speed, inconsistent with a ‘pinwheel-like’ galactic rotation which would preserve spiral arm stability. The possibility that this is really an ‘optical illusion’ masking the actual pinwheel-like rotation, and corresponding constancy of angular, not tangential, speed is considered here. Finally, speculation as to the phenomenon responsible for this ‘illusion’ is offered.

Category: [21542] [] submitted on 2017-12-20 12:31:14. Horizontal Planar Motion Mechanism (HPMM) Incorporated to the Existing Towing Carriage for Ship Manoeuvring Studies Authors:,, Comments: 6 Pages.

Proceedings of the RINA 5th International Conference on Ship and Offshore Technology (ICSOT 2017); December 7-8, 2017, IIT Kharagpur, India. Pp 421-426 Planar Motion Mechanism (PMM) equipment is a facility generally attached with Towing Tank to perform experimental studies with ship models to determine the manoeuvring characteristics of a ship. Ship model is oscillated at prescribed amplitude and frequency in different modes of operation while it is towed along the towing tank at predefined speed.The hydrodynamic forces and moments are recorded, analyzed and processed to get the hydrodynamic derivatives appearing in the manoeuvring equations of motion of a ship. This paper presents the details about the Horizontal Planar Motion Mechanism (HPMM) equipment which is designed, developed and installed in Towing Tank laboratory at IIT Madras.

Category: [21541] [] submitted on 2017-12-20 13:43:48. Classification of an Ads Solution Authors: Comments: 7 Pages. McVittie's model, which interpolates between a Schwarzschild Black Hole and an expanding global (FLRW) spacetime, can be constructed by a simple coordinate replacement in Schwarzschild's isotropic intervall. Analogously, one gets a similarly generated exact solution of Einstein's equations based on a static transformation of de Sitter's metric. The present article is concerned with the application of this method on the AdS (Anti de Sitter) spacetime.

Multiplying the radial coordinate and it's differential by a function a(t) gives the basic line element. Einstein's equations for the modified interval reduce to a system of two differential equations, which are solved in the article. The resulting solution is classified depending on the value of the cosmological constant. Several promising theories like String theorie and AdS/CFT correspondence include spacetimes with higher dimensions. Thereby motivated, the previous results of this article are generalized to D dimensions in the last section. Category: [21540] [] submitted on 2017-12-20 16:05:37. Dark Matter or Antimatter a la Cold Authors: Comments: 1 Page.

So let it be written so let it be done by CERN or any other MADD Scientist Club!!! The objective of this paper is to suggest that a photon can be cooled to -273 Kelvin and the photon can be slowed down around 10 m/s**2 and then a positive charge can be added to the minimally charged electron of the photon to create a positron which would be dark matter or antimatter, No Que No Carnal??? Category: [21539] [] submitted on 2017-12-20 17:00:36. Searching for the Gravific Photons Authors: Comments: 3 Pages. It was show that the linear momentum transported by electromagnetic waves has a negative component, in such way that, when a radiation incides on a surface, it is exerted a pressure on opposite direction to the direction of propagation of the radiation.

In addition, it was predicted the existence of photons in which the negative component of the momentum is greater than the positive one. These photons were called attractive photons or gravific photons.

Here, we show how to produce and to detect this type of photons. Category: [21538] [] submitted on 2017-12-20 23:12:04.

An Energy-Based Derivation of Lorentz Transformation in One Inertial Frame Authors: Comments: 14 Pages. The special theory of relativity is classically interpreted in terms of space-time symmetry, with the Lorentz transformation modifying the Galilean transformation as required to translate between 4-dimensional inertial frames as defined by Einstein and developed in relativistic texts (1.6). We begin here an energy-time asymmetrical interpretation based on multiplying the Galilean transformation by an energy factor representing the difference in energy between a system at rest and a system moving with velocity, both systems existing in one universal inertial frame. Detailed consequences of this energy-time interpretation of Lorentz-based physics will be treated in following papers.

Category: [21537] [] submitted on 2017-12-21 01:03:10. Electrical Current with Spinning Light Authors: Comments: 20 Pages. In new research, scientists at the University of Minnesota used a first-of-its-kind device to demonstrate a way to control the direction of the photocurrent without deploying an electric voltage. [13] Brown University researchers have demonstrated for the first time a method of substantially changing the spatial coherence of light. [12] Researchers at the University of Central Florida have generated what is being deemed the fastest light pulse ever developed. [11] Physicists at Chalmers University of Technology and Free University of Brussels have now found a method to significantly enhance optical force. [10] Nature Communications today published research by a team comprising Scottish and South African researchers, demonstrating entanglement swapping and teleportation of orbital angular momentum 'patterns' of light.

[9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of 'fully deterministic' quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation.

Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.

Category: [21533] [] submitted on 2017-12-19 13:45:25. Control Superconductivity using Spin Current Authors: Comments: 22 Pages. A group of researchers from institutions in Korea and the United States has determined how to employ a type of electron microscopy to cause regions within an iron-based superconductor to flip between superconducting and non-superconducting states. [14] In new research, scientists at the University of Minnesota used a first-of-its-kind device to demonstrate a way to control the direction of the photocurrent without deploying an electric voltage. [13] Brown University researchers have demonstrated for the first time a method of substantially changing the spatial coherence of light.

[12] Researchers at the University of Central Florida have generated what is being deemed the fastest light pulse ever developed. [11] Physicists at Chalmers University of Technology and Free University of Brussels have now found a method to significantly enhance optical force. [10] Nature Communications today published research by a team comprising Scottish and South African researchers, demonstrating entanglement swapping and teleportation of orbital angular momentum 'patterns' of light.

[9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of 'fully deterministic' quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.

The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information. Category: [21532] [] submitted on 2017-12-19 13:56:07.

MC Physics: Our Charged Universe- Matter Formation Authors: Comments: Pages. MC Physics finds that we live in a CHARGED UNIVERSE. Our Universe is charged because all matter is made of quantized charges, called “mono-charges”, and all forces result from interactions between those charges.

It is not an ‘electric’ Universe as that is too narrow a charge strength definition to describe all known matter, their properties and behavior, and all forces. We now live in a (mostly) charge neutral Universe because those mono-charges were progressively ‘driven’ by attraction charge forces over time and a cooling Universe to become overall charge neutral. This paper describes HOW and WHY those mono-charges, charge forces and joining processes formed the matter we see around us today. MC Physics proposes that a set of earliest Universe Quantization and Kinetic Energy events (collectively called “Big Bang”?) first split basic neutral CHARGE into two equal charge types (positive and negative, by convention), then it caused an uneven (or statistically skewed) charge strength distribution of those two charge types, which formed all mono-charges. Those events then caused all mono-charges to be forcibly repelled at high velocity, causing a very high kinetic energy initial Universe. Those highly kinetic quantized mono-charges, each now with a singular charge strength of either charge type, caused all force interactions, applied forces and subsequent physical reactions in the Universe, as all forces are charge force derived between mono-charges. Those mono-charges used those charge forces to ultimately form all matter in the Universe using the processes described in this paper.

The strongest evidence of mono-charge existence comes from MC Physics’ real physical model of the simplest physical entity in the Universe, a real elemental photon particle. No other real physical model is known to exist to explain all the properties of light/ radiation photons. Additional evidence of mono-charges comes from the continuity and repeatability of the ‘flipping/ rotating’ step to form alternating mono-charge type structures theorized for: mono-charges directly joining other mono-charges to form elemental particles; elemental quark particles directly joining other quarks to form composite protons; protons directly joining other protons to form nuclei; nuclei directly joining electron charges to form neutral atoms, and atoms directly joining other atoms to form molecules, etc. This paper describes MC Physics’ theory of matter formation using those mono-charges, charge forces and processes divided into chapters covering: 1. Mono-Charge Basics 2.

Charge Force Laws and Rules 3. Properties of Existing Matter 4. F-SCoTt Process of Matter Formation 5. Initial Quantization & Kinetic Energy Events(s) 6. Universe Time Line of Matter Formation 7.

New Standard Model of Matter Category: [21530] [] submitted on 2017-12-19 19:43:58. Delusion of Time Dilation Authors: Comments: 21 Pages. Exploits speed, time, and space to show why time dilation is impossible. Space and time are completely independent. Fundamental matter, energy, and space has existence and completely recyclable. However, time is only reference information.

It doest not exist. Among all, time can not be recycled! Clocks can drift, yet, it is absolutely independent of time. Can we suppose the expansion or contraction of a yard stick meant the space has changed? Category: [21525] [] submitted on 2017-12-19 22:12:59. Hidden Truth of Double-Slit Test Authors: Comments: 36 Pages. Basically, double-slit device is intrusive wave detector.

Shooting particles to study their properties is intrusion. It would not be the same as performing autopsy on tabletop.

The difficulty is not only studying a particle in motion, but keeping it still is not any easier, if possible. We are incapable of identifying it's individuality. Particle is a mass of it's own entity, and wave is the reaction of it's complement.

Above all, The rest of the universe is the absolute complement of an object. Even a particle, it is impossible for it to be anywhere else at the same time, since anywhere else is it's absolute complement. Category: [21524] [] submitted on 2017-12-19 22:16:26.

Event and Information Authors: Comments: 30 Pages. Our perception is the information of physical events collected by sensors. Observation is a special case of hi-speed transportation of stream of information packages. The arrival order and interval and the quality would determine the perception of the observer. Additionally, not all arrived packages are perceived. We can catch more packages by improving the sensitivity and faster response of apparatus. However, most is lost.

We can be fooled by what we see. Category: [21523] [] submitted on 2017-12-19 22:25:09.

Driving Force of Tectonic Plate Authors: Comments: 8 Pages. Gravity is the inward force of keeping it's spherical shape. Force of tectonic motion has to fight against gravity to push the crust from the ocean floor to the top of mountain ranges.

The only force that is persistently counteracting and can be stronger then gravity is the centrifugal force. It is likely the centrifugal acceleration made Earth oblate spheroid, and the main driving force of waving mantle along with crust, water and atmosphere.

This preliminary is only an open proposal for further study from the view of mantle/crust waves. Additionally, the added mass and energy of Solar particles and momentum could impact the crust. Like kneading Earth dough, the magnitude could be larger than we think by far. Further study is also recommended. Category: [21522] [] submitted on 2017-12-20 02:53:58.

A Strange Coincidence in the Behaviour of Leptons and Mesons Authors: Comments: 4 Pages. According to the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), all hadrons are built of the Einstein-spacetime (ES) components (they are the neutrino-antineutrino pairs - their detection is much difficult than neutrinos) and neutrino(s). The ES components are the carriers of the photons and gluons (they are the rotational energies).

It leads to conclusion that sometimes we should observe some coincidences in the behaviour of neutrinos and hadrons. Here we show one of such lepton-meson coincidence - there is the similarity of the curves for the neutrino cross-section per neutrino energy in quasi-elastic (QE) scattering and for the kaon-to-pion ratio - in both curves, there is a “horn” and the origin of the separated two curves is the same. Category: [21521] [] submitted on 2017-12-20 04:40:22. Intercepting a Stealthy Network Authors:, Comments: 18 Pages. We investigate a new threat: networks of stealthy routers (S-Routers), communicating across a restricted area. The ‘classical’ approach of transmission-detection by triangulation fails, since S-Routers use short-range, low-energy communication, detectable only by nearby devices.

We investigate algorithms to intercept S-Routers, using one or more mobile devices, called Interceptors. Given a source of communication, Interceptors find the destination, by intercepting packet-relaying by S-Routers along the path.

We evaluate the algorithms analytically and experimentally (simulations), including against a parametric, optimized S-Routers algorithm. Our main result is a (centralized) Interceptors algorithm bounding the outcome to O(Nlog^2(N), where N is the number of S-Routers.

We later improve the bound to O(Nlog(N)log(log(N))), for the case where the transmission schedule of the S-Routers is continuous. Category: [21520] [] submitted on 2017-12-19 09:22:11. New Type of Quantum Material Authors: Comments: 18 Pages. A potential new state of matter is being reported in the journal Nature, with research showing that among superconducting materials in high magnetic fields, the phenomenon of electronic symmetry breaking is common.

[30] Researchers from the University of Geneva (UNIGE) in Switzerland and the Technical University Munich in Germany have lifted the veil on the electronic characteristics of high-temperature superconductors. Their research, published in Nature Communications, shows that the electronic densities measured in these superconductors are a combination of two separate effects. As a result, they propose a new model that suggests the existence of two coexisting states rather than competing ones postulated for the past thirty years, a small revolution in the world of superconductivity. [29] A team led by scientists at the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory combined powerful magnetic pulses with some of the brightest X-rays on the planet to discover a surprising 3-D arrangement of a material's electrons that appears closely linked to a mysterious phenomenon known as high-temperature superconductivity. [28] Advanced x-ray technique reveals surprising quantum excitations that persist through materials with or without superconductivity. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.

The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.

Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement. Category: [21518] [] submitted on 2017-12-19 10:29:58. Quantum Experiments and Graph Theory Authors: Comments: 38 Pages. An answer to a quantum-physical question provided by the algorithm Melvin has uncovered a hidden link between quantum experiments and the mathematical field of Graph Theory. [23] Engineers develop key mathematical formula for driving quantum experiments. [22] Physicists are developing quantum simulators, to help solve problems that are beyond the reach of conventional computers.

[21] Engineers at Australia's University of New South Wales have invented a radical new architecture for quantum computing, based on novel 'flip-flop qubits', that promises to make the large-scale manufacture of quantum chips dramatically cheaper-and easier-than thought possible. [20] A team of researchers from the U.S. And Italy has built a quantum memory device that is approximately 1000 times smaller than similar devices— small enough to install on a chip. [19] The cutting edge of data storage research is working at the level of individual atoms and molecules, representing the ultimate limit of technological miniaturisation. [18] This is an important clue for our theoretical understanding of optically controlled magnetic data storage media.

[17] A crystalline material that changes shape in response to light could form the heart of novel light-activated devices. [16] Now a team of Penn State electrical engineers have a way to simultaneously control diverse optical properties of dielectric waveguides by using a two-layer coating, each layer with a near zero thickness and weight.

[15] Just like in normal road traffic, crossings are indispensable in optical signal processing. In order to avoid collisions, a clear traffic rule is required. A new method has now been developed at TU Wien to provide such a rule for light signals. [14] Category: [21517] [] submitted on 2017-12-18 12:40:48. Quantum Memory Authors: Comments: 42 Pages. Concerning the development of quantum memories for the realization of global quantum networks, scientists of the Quantum Dynamics Division led by Professor Gerhard Rempe at the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics (MPQ) have now achieved a major breakthrough: they demonstrated the long-lived storage of a photonic qubit on a single atom trapped in an optical resonator. [26] Achieving strong light-matter interaction at the quantum level has always been a central task in quantum physics since the emergence of quantum information and quantum control.

[25] Operation at the single-photon level raises the possibility of developing entirely new communication and computing devices, ranging from hardware random number generators to quantum computers. [24] Considerable interest in new single-photon detector technologies has been scaling in this past decade. [23] Engineers develop key mathematical formula for driving quantum experiments. [22] Physicists are developing quantum simulators, to help solve problems that are beyond the reach of conventional computers. [21] Engineers at Australia's University of New South Wales have invented a radical new architecture for quantum computing, based on novel 'flip-flop qubits', that promises to make the large-scale manufacture of quantum chips dramatically cheaper-and easier-than thought possible.

[20] A team of researchers from the U.S. And Italy has built a quantum memory device that is approximately 1000 times smaller than similar devices— small enough to install on a chip. [19] The cutting edge of data storage research is working at the level of individual atoms and molecules, representing the ultimate limit of technological miniaturisation.

[18] This is an important clue for our theoretical understanding of optically controlled magnetic data storage media. [17] A crystalline material that changes shape in response to light could form the heart of novel light-activated devices. [16] Category: [21516] [] submitted on 2017-12-18 14:55:36. Special and General Relativity and the Relativistic Ether as Observer Dependent by the Retardation Authors: Comments: 20 Pages.

In this paper I’ll show how the relativistic effect in SRT must be observer dependent which is leading to field and retardation, and that is leading to the wave-particle duality and the uncertainty principle by the vacuum fluctuation. In this I propose a new transformation by translating the retardation according to the invariance by the entanglement which is leading to the relativistic ether from the point of view of the quantum vacuum which is leading to the wave-particle duality and the uncertainty principle by the vacuum fluctuation. According to my transformation, there two pictures for the moving train, and these two pictures are separate in space and time as a result of the retardation but they are entangled by the invariance of the energy momentum.

That will lead also to explain the double slit experiment from the point of view of quantum theory. In my new transformation, I propose there is no space-time continuum, as in special relativity; it is only time, and space is invariant. That leads to the new transformation being vacuum energy dependent instead of relative velocity dependent as in Einstein’s interpretation of the Lorentz transformation equations of the theory of special relativity. Furthermore, the Lorentz factor in my transformation is equivalent to the refractive index in optics. That leads to the disappearance of all the paradoxes of the theory of special relativity: The Twin paradox, Ehrenfest paradox, the Ladder paradox, and Bell’s spaceship paradox. Furthermore, according to my interpretation, one could explain the experimental results of quantum tunneling and entanglement (spooky action), Casimir effect, and Hartman effect. Also according to that by my equivalence principle, dark matter and dark energy are explained, and no need to propose dark matter and dark energy, and as a consequence of that, the cosmological constant problem will be solved.

Category: [21515] [] submitted on 2017-12-18 15:14:48. Essay on Statistics Authors: Comments: 12 Pages. In French In this paper, we will explain some basic notions of statistics, first in the case of one variable, then in the case of two variables, while organizing ideas and drawing a parallel between some statistical and probabilistic formulas that are alike. We will also say a brief word about econometrics, time series and stochastic processes and provide some bibliographical references where these notions are explained clearly. Category: [21514] [] submitted on 2017-12-18 17:47:24.

Thought Force is a New Fundamental Interaction Authors: Comments: 27 Pages. According to current, widespread understanding, measurable thoughts are electromagnetic signals of the brain. The spectrum of frequency of the brain’s electric signals is known. We made a very simple experiment with force of thought using a paper wheel. We concluded that the energy carried by thoughts (expressed in frequency of energy wave) was eight orders of magnitude beyond the highest frequencies of the brain’s electric waves. The brain’s electromagnetic signal doesn’t explain all effects of thought, it is just a part of measurable thought. Measurable thought is more than the brain’s electromagnetic signal.

Thought is a gravity-like force. According to modern physics, gravity is the deformation of space-time. With this definition, however, we can only partially account for the peculiarities of the force of thought. For a complete understanding, we must redefine the concept of gravity; and for this, we must broaden our concept of the 'space-time' conceptual system.

This broader version is the 'space-matter' model. Space-time constitutes a part of the spacematter model. The fundamental difference between the two lies in the definition of time. In the space-matter model, time is created through the action-reaction of space and matter. Time is the wave of space from the viewpoint of matter.

Thought manifests itself as a new fundamental force. This new force can be gives either as the changes in the frequencies of space waves (and time waves), or as non-space waves that are faster than light. Category: [21512] [] submitted on 2017-12-19 01:33:03.

Just Keep it in Mind: Information is a Complex Notion with Physical and Semantic Information Staying for Real and Imaginary Parts of the Expression Authors: Comments: 3 Pages. Presented at the IS4SI 2017 Summit, Information Theory Section, Gothenburg, Sweden, 12–16 June 2017 Shannon’s Information was devised to improve the performance of a data communication channel. Since then, the situation has changed drastically and today a more generally applicable and suitable definition of information is urgently required. To meet this demand, I have proposed a definition of my own. According to it, information is a complex notion with Physical and Semantic information staying for Real and Imaginary parts of the term. The scientific community has very unfriendly accepted this idea.

But without a better solution for the problem of: 1) intron-exon partition in genes, 2) information flow in neuronal networks, 3) memory creation and potentiation in brains, 4) thoughts and thinking materialization in human heads, and 5) the undeniable shift from Computational (that is, data processing based) approach to Cognitive (that is, information processing based) approach in the field of scientific research, they would be forced to admit one day that something worthy is in this new definition. Category: [21507] [] submitted on 2017-12-18 09:05:26. Shannon's Definition of Information is Obsolete and Inadequate. It is Time to Embrace Kolmogorov’s Insights on the Matter Authors: Comments: 3 Pages. Presented at the 2016 ICSEE International Conference, Eilat, Israel, 16 – 18 November 2016. Information Theory, as developed by Claude Shannon in 1948, was about the communication of messages as electronic signals via a transmission channel.

Only physical properties of the signal and the channel have been taken into account. While the meaning of the message has been ignored totally. Such an approach to information met very well the requirements of a data communication channel. But recent advances in almost all sciences put an urgent demand for meaningful information inclusion into the body of a communicated message. To meet this demand, I have proposed a new definition of information. In this definition, information is seen as a complex notion composed of two inseparable parts: Physical information and Semantic information.

Classical informations such as Shannon, Fisher, Renyi, Kolmogorov’s complexity, and Chaitin’s algorithmic information – they are all physical information variants. Semantic information is a new concept and it desires to be properly studied, treated, and used. Category: [21506] [] submitted on 2017-12-18 09:21:04. The Brain is Processing Information, not Data: Does Anybody Knows About That? Authors: Comments: 10 Pages. A preliminary version presented at The ISIS Summit “The Information Society at the Crossroads”, Vienna, Austria, 3–7 June 2015 Discriminating and opposing “data” and “information” (as it is emphasized in the paper’s title) for most of the scientific community sounds like something odd and unnatural.

Raised in the spirit of Shannon’s Information Theory, most of the scientific community is convinced that data and information are inseparable. Nevertheless, over the last decade we witness a growing recognition that Shannon’s Information Theory is wrong, or speaking more politely, is limited only to data communication issues. Today, distinguishing data and information processing is gradually becoming a popular and widespread trend. However, because this trend is missing a firm theoretical underpinning, it looks a bit messy and inconsistent.

Despite of this, the paradigm shift in contemporary science is clearly evident – from a data processing (computational) approach we are firstly moving to an information processing (cognitive) approach. (“Cognitive” here implies “capable of information processing”). Undeniably, Computational biology, Computational neuroscience, Computational linguistics (and so on) are being replaced today by Cognitive biology, Cognitive neuroscience, Cognitive linguistics, and so on. However, this tendency is hampered by a lack of understanding about what is “information processing”. Subsequently, a question “what is information?” immediately rise up. A consensus answer to it does not exist. I believe I have the answer.

But instead of repetitive explanations about what is information, I prefer to bring an informational perspective to the everyday practice of scientific exploration, especially biological and neuroscience explorations. Maybe this will be more advantageous.

Category: [21505] [] submitted on 2017-12-17 13:40:40. An Alternative to the Schwarzschild Solution of GTR Authors: Comments: 25 Pages. In the first part we analyze a novel metric for a spherically symmetric mass distribution, here called the K-gravity metric.

This has a close formal similarity to the Schwarzschild metric, but has quite distinct properties, including infinitely dispersed mass, and lack of an event horizon. In the second part we propose that this may be taken as a general alternative solution for physical gravity within GTR, resulting from an alternative interpretation of the stress-energy tensor, which is no longer 0 for empty space, and we consider the empirical differences with standard Schwarzschild gravity. We propose a novel test of GTR is in order, to test this against the usual Schwarzschild solution in the solar system. Category: [21503] [] submitted on 2017-12-18 02:38:23. Brief Solutions to Collatz Problem, Goldbach Conjecture and Twin Primes Authors: Comments: 5 Pages. I published some solutions a time ago to Goldbach Conjecture, Collatz Problem and Twin Primes; but I noticed that there were some serious logic voids to explain the problems. After that I made some corrections in my another article; but still there were some mistakes.

Even so, I can say it easily that here I brought exact solutions for them out by new methods back to the drawing board. Category: [21500] [] submitted on 2017-12-17 05:32:41. Force Between Two Parallel Current Wires and Newton’s Third Law Authors: Comments: 5 Pages. In this paper, the essence of the interaction between two parallel current wires is analyzed. During the analysis we found that if the interaction is originated from the resultant Lorentz force of the charge carriers in the currents, the Newton’s third law will be violated in this system.

However, if the essence of the interaction of the two current wires is considered as the attraction or repulsion of the two circular magnetic fields created by each current, the trouble of violating Newton’s third law can be avoided. Category: [21497] [] submitted on 2017-12-16 16:46:07. The Closed-Form Theory of Tuned Mass Damper with Hysteretic Friction Authors: Comments: 24 Pages. The classical theory of lumped mechanical systems employs the viscous friction mechanisms (dashpots), while the loss factors of most solid structures are controlled by hysteresis. This paper presents analysis of the forced vibration of 2-DOF in-series systems with hysteretic friction where one of the partial 1-DOF systems plays the role of tuned (or auxiliary) mass damper (TMD). The assumption of hysteretic damping is acceptable if the loss factor remains about stable at least in the frequency range containing the resonance peaks.

The closed-form simple relationships for the transmissibility at the resonance frequencies are derived in the “nearby” case where (1) the natural undamped frequencies of 2-DOF in-series system are most close to each other and (2) the loss factors of the 2-DOF system become similar and equal to the arithmetic average of the partial loss factors. The independent parameters are the mass ratio and partial loss factors.

The relationships become very simple if the mass ratio is high or low compared to the square of each partial loss factor. In cases where the ratio of natural undamped frequencies of 2-DOF system are moderately lower or higher than in the “nearby case”, the transmissibility peak magnitudes are about similar to those for the “nearby” case. The results can be utilized for the noise and vibration control in machinery and buildings. Category: [21496] [] submitted on 2017-12-16 19:45:21. Electromagnetic Mass Reduction Repulsion Boots Authors: Comments: 2 Pages. This paper is about Human performance, mass reduction through repulsion and Mathematical Physics. The purpose of this paper is to show how these electronic mass reduction repulsion boot(similar to magnetic field disruption TR3B (could be used on the Talos to reduce the weight of the suit.(Category: [21495] [] submitted on 2017-12-17 02:19:30.

Derivation Method of Numerous Dynamics in the Special Theory of Relativity Authors:, Comments: 24 Pages. There are many dynamics in STR, and not one, it is believed. The article presents our innovative method of deriving dynamics in the Special Theory of Relativity. This method enables to derive infinitely dynamics in relativistic mechanics. We have shown five examples of these derivations. In this way, we have shown that the dynamics known today as the dynamics of Special Theory of Relativity is only one of infinitely possible.

There is also no reason to treat this relativistic dynamics as exceptional, either for experimental or theoretical reasons. Therefore, determination of which possible dynamics of relativistic mechanics is a correct model of reality remains an open problem of physics. Category: [21493] [] submitted on 2017-12-16 09:24:13. Single Photon Detector Authors: Comments: 44 Pages. Engineers have shown that a widely used method of detecting single photons can also count the presence of at least four photons at a time.

[28] An international team of researchers, affiliated with UNIST has presented a core technology for quantum photonic devices used in quantum information processing. They have proposed combining of quantum dots for generating light and silicon photonic technologies for manipulating light on a single device. [27]Concerning the development of quantum memories for the realization of global quantum networks, scientists of the Quantum Dynamics Division led by Professor Gerhard Rempe at the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics (MPQ) have now achieved a major breakthrough: they demonstrated the long-lived storage of a photonic qubit on a single atom trapped in an optical resonator. [26] Achieving strong light-matter interaction at the quantum level has always been a central task in quantum physics since the emergence of quantum information and quantum control. [25] Operation at the single-photon level raises the possibility of developing entirely new communication and computing devices, ranging from hardware random number generators to quantum computers.

[24] Considerable interest in new single-photon detector technologies has been scaling in this past decade. [23] Engineers develop key mathematical formula for driving quantum experiments. [22] Physicists are developing quantum simulators, to help solve problems that are beyond the reach of conventional computers. [21] Engineers at Australia's University of New South Wales have invented a radical new architecture for quantum computing, based on novel 'flip-flop qubits', that promises to make the large-scale manufacture of quantum chips dramatically cheaper-and easier-than thought possible. [20] A team of researchers from the U.S.

And Italy has built a quantum memory device that is approximately 1000 times smaller than similar devices— small enough to install on a chip. [19] Category: [21492] [] submitted on 2017-12-15 08:30:49. Two-Dimensional Fourier Transformations and Mordell Integrals Authors: Comments: 10 Pages. Several Fourier transformations of functions of one and two variables are evaluated and then used to derive some integral and series identities. It is shown that certain two- dimensional Mordell integrals factorize into product of two integrals and that the square of the absolute value of the Mordell integral can be reduced to a single one-dimensional integral. Some connections to elliptic functions and lattice sums are discussed.

Category: [21491] [] submitted on 2017-12-15 09:53:51. On Quantization of Interacting Velocity Gauge Fields Authors: Comments: 5 Pages. The many velocity gauge fields interaction Lagrangian density is extended to a continuous spectrum Lagrangian then quantized and normalized. The Euler-Lagrange equation is transformed to the Yang-Mills field, curvature and integral operators. The Yang-Mills field operator quantization gives the equivalent Dirac equation, the integral operator quantization gives perturbation series similar to the path integral formulation of Quantum mechanics and the curvature operator gives the Einstein-Hilbert Lagrangian. In all quantization cases, the field form operators have mass eigenvalue.

Finally, the normalization of the wave function gives the Lagrangian of massive particle Lagrangian with many different representations. Category: [21490] [] submitted on 2017-12-15 10:21:17. Quantum Behavior of Resonant Systems Authors: Comments: 40 Pages. A collaboration of scientists from five of the world's most advanced x-ray sources in Europe, Japan and the US, has succeeded in verifying a basic prediction of the quantum-mechanical behavior of resonant systems.

[25] This achievement is considered as an important landmark for the realization of practical application of photon upconversion technology. [24] Considerable interest in new single-photon detector technologies has been scaling in this past decade. [23] Engineers develop key mathematical formula for driving quantum experiments. [22] Physicists are developing quantum simulators, to help solve problems that are beyond the reach of conventional computers. [21] Engineers at Australia's University of New South Wales have invented a radical new architecture for quantum computing, based on novel 'flip-flop qubits', that promises to make the large-scale manufacture of quantum chips dramatically cheaper-and easier-than thought possible.

[20] A team of researchers from the U.S. And Italy has built a quantum memory device that is approximately 1000 times smaller than similar devices— small enough to install on a chip. [19] The cutting edge of data storage research is working at the level of individual atoms and molecules, representing the ultimate limit of technological miniaturisation. [18] This is an important clue for our theoretical understanding of optically controlled magnetic data storage media.

[17] A crystalline material that changes shape in response to light could form the heart of novel light-activated devices. [16] Now a team of Penn State electrical engineers have a way to simultaneously control diverse optical properties of dielectric waveguides by using a two-layer coating, each layer with a near zero thickness and weight. [15] Category: [21488] [] submitted on 2017-12-15 13:20:16. Consciousness Authors: Comments: 3 Pages.

The present scientific paradigm holds that the brain is the seat of consciousness, and a complete knowledge of the neurons will yield a full understanding of this phenomena. There are also non-scientific paradigms that suggest that consciousness is some how connected to a great universal consciousness, the mind of God. In this paper I will separate these two ideas by defining a local and global consciousness, and will briefly discuss both. Category: [21487] [] submitted on 2017-12-15 16:18:36. Tying Gravitational Work to Energy Transformations and Other Principles in the General Theory of Stellar Metamorphosis Authors: Comments: 1 Page. Gravitational work is defined as the star doing work on itself as it collapses into a 'planet'.

This work translates to various energy transformations, due to Gravitational Potential energy being converted to kinetic energy and then to friction, heat and electrical energy and back to potential energy in different forms. Explanation is provided. Category: [21486] [] submitted on 2017-12-15 19:37:16.

The Unifying Theory: A New Theory of the Universe Authors: Comments: 16 Pages. Our understanding of motion has been influenced by the assumption that external and invisible forces act upon matter to cause acceleration. In this article, I refute the validity of this convention and propose an alternative perception that suggests matter's independence. That change in perspective gives rise to important principles and equations that contribute to resolving the conflict between classical and quantum mechanics, unifying the explanations for universal forces and explaining the Lorentz transformation. I start by introducing a unit, a number of fundamental particles, that replaces mass.

Then, I suggest that motion is quantized with a frequency equal to speed divided by a variation of Planck's Length. I then explain that energy is the primary cause of motion and can be calculated by measuring time dilation. Finally, I introduce a single formula that describes gravity and electromagnetism. Category: [21485] [] submitted on 2017-12-15 22:02:20. Predicting Yelp Star Reviews Based on Network Structure with Deep Learning Authors: Comments: 12 pages, 17 figures In this paper, we tackle the real-world problem of predicting Yelp star-review rating based on business features (such as images, descriptions), user features (average previous ratings), and, of particular interest, network properties (which businesses has a user rated before). We compare multiple models on different sets of features -- from simple linear regression on network features only to deep learning models on network and item features.

In recent years, breakthroughs in deep learning have led to increased accuracy in common supervised learning tasks, such as image classification, captioning, and language understanding. However, the idea of combining deep learning with network feature and structure appears to be novel.

While the problem of predicting future interactions in a network has been studied at length, these approaches have often ignored either node-specific data or global structure. We demonstrate that taking a mixed approach combining both node-level features and network information can effectively be used to predict Yelp-review star ratings. We evaluate on the Yelp dataset by splitting our data along the time dimension (as would naturally occur in the real-world) and comparing our model against others which do no take advantage of the network structure and/or deep learning. Category: [21483] [] submitted on 2017-12-15 23:41:37.

The Effectiveness of Data Augmentation in Image Classification using Deep Learning Authors:, Comments: 8 Pages. In this paper, we explore and compare multiple solutions to the problem of data augmentation in image classification. Previous work has demonstrated the effectiveness of data augmentation through simple techniques, such as cropping, rotating, and flipping input images.

We artificially constrain our access to data to a small subset of the ImageNet dataset, and compare each data augmentation technique in turn. One of the more successful data augmentations strategies is the traditional transformations mentioned above.

We also experiment with GANs to generate images of different styles. Finally, we propose a method to allow a neural net to learn augmentations that best improve the classifier, which we call neural augmentation. We discuss the successes and shortcomings of this method on various datasets. Category: [21482] [] submitted on 2017-12-15 23:43:11. Gaussian Processes for Crime Prediction Authors:, Comments: 8 Pages. The ability to predict crime is incredibly useful for police departments, city planners, and many other parties, but thus far current approaches have not made use of recent developments of machine learning techniques.

In this paper, we present a novel approach to this task: Gaussian processes regression. Gaussian processes (GP) are a rich family of distributions that are able to learn functions. We train GPs on historic crime data to learn the underlying probability distribution of crime incidence to make predictions on future crime distributions. Category: [21481] [] submitted on 2017-12-15 23:44:57. Primes Obtained Concatenating 9p-12 with P^2 Where P Prime or Poulet Number Authors: Comments: 2 Pages.

In this paper I make the following two conjectures: (1) There exist an infinity of primes obtained concatenating 9*p – 12 with p^2 where p is a prime (for example, such a prime is 208554289 obtained concatenating 9*233 – 12 = 2085 with 233^2 = 54289); (2) There exist an infinity of primes obtained concatenating 9*p – 12 with p^2 where p is a Poulet number (for example, such a prime is 41 obtained concatenating 9*1729 – 12 = 15549 with 1729^2 = 2989441). Category: [21473] [] submitted on 2017-12-14 09:19:56. Primes Obtained Concatenating 2n+4 with 2n+4 Then with N Where N=3p and P Prime Authors: Comments: 1 Page.

In this paper I make the following conjecture: There exist an infinity of primes obtained concatenating 2*n + 4 with 2*n + 4 then with n where n = 3*p and p is a prime; for example, such primes are 19019093 obtained concatenating 190 = 2*(3*31) + 4 with 190 then with 93 = 3*31 or 3 obtained concatenating 1270 = 2*(3*211) + 4 with 1270 then with 633 = 3*211. Note that for twenty-five from the first eighty primes p are obtained primes with this method. Category: [21472] [] submitted on 2017-12-14 16:26:27. Emergence of the Laws of Nature in the Developing Entangled Universe Authors: Comments: 13 Pages.

Evolution of our universe with continuous production of matter by the vacuum, is described. The analysis is based on the quantum modification of the general relativity (Qmoger), supported by the cosmic data without fitting. Various types of matter are selected by the vacuum in accordance with stability of the developing universe. All laws of nature seems to be emergent and approximate, including the conservation of energy. The (3+1)-dimensional space-time and gravity were selected first. Than came quantum condensate of entangled gravitons (dark matter). Photons and other ordinary matter were selected much later during formation of galaxies, when the background condensate becomes gravitationally unstable.

The effect of radiation on the global dynamics is described in terms of conservation of the enthalpy density. Mass of neutrino, as the first massive fermionic particle created from the background condensate, is estimated, in accord with experimental bound. The electric dipole moment of neutrino is also estimated.

The oscillations of neutrinos are explained in terms of interaction with background condensate. The phenomena of quantum entanglement of ordinary matter was, apparently, inherited from the background condensate. The phenomena of subjective experiences are also explained in terms of interaction of the action potentials of neurons with the background dipolar condensate, which opens a new window into the dark sector of matter. The Qmoger theory goes beyond the Standard Model and the Quantum Field Theory and can be combined with their achievements.

Key words: quantum modification of general relativity, emergence of the laws of nature, isenthalpic universe, quantum condensate of gravitons, oscillating neutrinos, subjective experiences and dark sector of matter. Category: [21471] [] submitted on 2017-12-14 16:56:51.

Influence of Temperature to Flow-Induced Forces on QCM Sensors in a Pakistani Liquor Identification Electronic-Nose Authors: Comments: 8 Pages. Computational fluid dynamics, Temperature, QCM gas sensor, Electronic nose, Identification accuracy An electronic-nose (e-nose) was developed based on eight quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) gas sensors in a sensor box, and was used to detect Pakistani liquors at room temperature. Each QCM gas sensor was a highly-accuracy and highly-sensitive oscillator that experienced airflow disturbances under the condition of varying room temperature due to unstable flow-induced forces on sensors surfaces. The three-dimensional (3D) nature of the airflow inside the sensor box and the interactions of the airflow on the sensors surfaces at different temperatures were studied utilizing computational fluid dynamics tools. Higher simulation accuracy was achieved by optimizing meshes, meshing the computational domain using a fine unstructural tetrahedron mesh. An optimum temperature, 30°C, was obtained by analyzing the distribution of velocity streamlines and static pressure, as well as flow-induced forces over time, all of which may be used to improve the identification accuracy of the QCM e-nose for achieving stabile and repeatable signals by removing the influence of temperature. Category: [21469] [] submitted on 2017-12-15 00:25:18.

How Many Shots Were Fired on 22. November 1963 in Dealey Plaza? Authors: Comments: 14 Pages. This article is continuation to my previous article on the acoustic evidence of the assassination of President John. Four putative gunshots are identified from Dictabelt data, they are matched to the Zapruder film, and a fifth shot is postulated because of the Zapruder film. Finally echo correlation analysis is performed. It is only suggestive because data is too noisy, but agrees with what can be expected by other arguments.

Category: [21468] [] submitted on 2017-12-15 03:07:11. Primes of the Form 2^a∙2^b∙2^c + D Where a, b, c, D of the Form 6k-1 Authors: Comments: 2 Pages. In this paper I make the following conjecture: For any a, b, c distinct numbers of the form 6*k – 1 there exist an infinity of numbers d of the form 6*h – 1 such that the number n = 2^a*2^b*2^c + d is prime. This is a formula that conducts often to primes and composites with very few prime factors; for instance, taking a = 5 and b = 11 are obtained seventeen primes for c and d both less than 100 (for c = 17, n is prime for six values of d up to 100: 17, 29, 35, 59, 71, 77)! Also note that for [a, b, c, d] = [59, 65, 71, 53] (all four less than or equal to 71) is obtained a prime with 59 digits!

Category: [21467] [] submitted on 2017-12-15 03:09:04. Primes of the Form 2^a∙2^b∙2^c D Where a, b, c, D of the Form 6k+1 Authors: Comments: 2 Pages. In this paper I make the following conjecture: For any a, b, c distinct numbers of the form 6*k + 1 there exist an infinity of numbers d of the form 6*h + 1 such that the number n = 2^a*2^b*2^c - d is prime. This is a formula that conducts often to primes and composites with very few prime factors; for instance, taking a = 7 and b = 13 are obtained eighteen primes for c and d both less than 100 (for c = 19, n is prime for four values of d up to 100: 7, 19, 67, 91)! Also note that for [a, b, c, d] = [49, 55, 61, 61] (all four less than or equal to 61) is obtained a prime with 50 digits!

Category: [21466] [] submitted on 2017-12-15 03:27:41. Quest for an Elusive Particle Authors: Comments: 35 Pages. Physicists have hypothesized the existence of fundamental particles called sterile neutrinos for decades and a couple of experiments have even caught possible hints of them. However, according to new results from two major international consortia, the chances that these indications were right and that these particles actually exist are now much slimmer. [10] The MIT team studied the distribution of neutrino flavors generated in Illinois, versus those detected in Minnesota, and found that these distributions can be explained most readily by quantum phenomena: As neutrinos sped between the reactor and detector, they were statistically most likely to be in a state of superposition, with no definite flavor or identity.

[9] A new study reveals that neutrinos produced in the core of a supernova are highly localised compared to neutrinos from all other known sources. This result stems from a fresh estimate for an entity characterising these neutrinos, known as wave packets, which provide information on both their position and their momentum.

[8] It could all have been so different. When matter first formed in the universe, our current theories suggest that it should have been accompanied by an equal amount of antimatter – a conclusion we know must be wrong, because we wouldn't be here if it were true. Now the latest results from a pair of experiments designed to study the behaviour of neutrinos – particles that barely interact with the rest of the universe – could mean we're starting to understand why. [7] In 2012, a tiny flash of light was detected deep beneath the Antarctic ice.

A burst of neutrinos was responsible, and the flash of light was their calling card. It might not sound momentous, but the flash could give us tantalising insights into one of the most energetic objects in the distant universe. The light was triggered by the universe's most elusive particles when they made contact with a remarkable detector, appropriately called IceCube, which was built for the very purpose of capturing rare events such as this. [6] Neutrinos and their weird subatomic ways could help us understand highenergy particles, exploding stars and the origins of matter itself.

[5] PHYSICS may be shifting to the right. Tantalizing signals at CERN's Large Hadron Collider near Geneva, Switzerland, hint at a new particle that could end 50 years of thinking that nature discriminates between left and righthanded particles. [4] Category: [21465] [] submitted on 2017-12-15 05:11:59. Silicon Quantum Computer Authors: Comments: 48 Pages. Physicists have built one of the first basic elements of a trapped Rydberg ion quantum computer: a single-qubit Rydberg gate.

[28] An international team of researchers, affiliated with UNIST has presented a core technology for quantum photonic devices used in quantum information processing. They have proposed combining of quantum dots for generating light and silicon photonic technologies for manipulating light on a single device. [27] Concerning the development of quantum memories for the realization of global quantum networks, scientists of the Quantum Dynamics Division led by Professor Gerhard Rempe at the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics (MPQ) have now achieved a major breakthrough: they demonstrated the long-lived storage of a photonic qubit on a single atom trapped in an optical resonator. [26] Achieving strong light-matter interaction at the quantum level has always been a central task in quantum physics since the emergence of quantum information and quantum control. [25] Operation at the single-photon level raises the possibility of developing entirely new communication and computing devices, ranging from hardware random number generators to quantum computers.

[24] Considerable interest in new single-photon detector technologies has been scaling in this past decade. [23] Engineers develop key mathematical formula for driving quantum experiments. [22] Physicists are developing quantum simulators, to help solve problems that are beyond the reach of conventional computers. [21] Engineers at Australia's University of New South Wales have invented a radical new architecture for quantum computing, based on novel 'flip-flop qubits', that promises to make the large-scale manufacture of quantum chips dramatically cheaper-and easier-than thought possible.

[20] A team of researchers from the U.S. And Italy has built a quantum memory device that is approximately 1000 times smaller than similar devices— small enough to install on a chip.

[19] The cutting edge of data storage research is working at the level of individual atoms and molecules, representing the ultimate limit of technological miniaturisation. [18] Category: [21463] [] submitted on 2017-12-15 07:35:21.

Why Speed of Light is Constant Regardless the Motion? Authors: Comments: 7 Pages. In this paper, we explain why speed of light is constant for all observers by postulating that the moving frames travel to forward and backward with the same velocity with respect to observers at rest. The regress of moving frames to backward during its motion to forward refers to reversal of space and time of moving frames with respect to observers at rest. The conclusions drawn in this study refer to “Retrocausality' or 'backward causation' of moving frames along reversed space and during reversed time with respect to a stationary frame of reference. Category: [21462] [] submitted on 2017-12-13 08:17:06.

A New Divergence Measure for Basic Probability Assignment and Its Applications in Extremely Uncertain Environments Authors:,,, Comments: 9 Pages. Information fusion under extremely uncertain environments is an important issue in pattern classification and decision-making problem.

Dempster-Shafer evidence theory (D-S theory) is more and more extensively applied to information fusion for its advantage to deal with uncertain information. However, the results opposite to common sense are often obtained when combining the different evidences using Dempster’s combination rules. How to measure the difference between different evidences is still an open issue. In this paper, a new divergence is proposed based on Kullback-Leibler divergence in order to measure the difference between different basic probability assignments (BPAs). Numerical examples are used to illustrate the computational process of the proposed divergence. Then the similarity for different BPAs is also defined based on the proposed divergence.

The basic knowledge about pattern recognition is introduced and a new classification algorithm is presented using the proposed divergence and similarity under extremely uncertain environments, which is illustrated by a small example handling robot sensing. The method put forward is motivated by desperately in need to develop intelligent systems, such as sensor-based data fusion manipulators, which need to work in complicated, extremely uncertain environments. Sensory data satisfy the conditions 1) fragmentary and 2) collected from multiple levels of resolution.

Category: [21461] [] submitted on 2017-12-13 08:35:07. Environmental Impact Assessment Using D-Vikor Approach Authors:, Comments: 15 Pages. Environmental impact assessment (EIA) is an open and important issue depends on factors such as social, ecological, economic, etc. Due to human judgment, a variety of uncertainties are brought into the EIA process.

With regard to uncertainty, many existing methods seem powerless to represent and deal with it effectively. A new theory called D numbers, because of its advantage to handle uncertain information, is widely used to uncertainty modeling and decision making. VIKOR method has its unique advantages in dealing with multiple criteria decision making problems (MCDM), especially when the criteria are non-commensurable and even conflicting, it can also obtain the compromised optimal solution. In order to solve EIA problems more effectively, in this paper, a D-VIKOR approach is proposed, which expends the VIKOR method by D numbers theory. In the proposed approach, assessment information of environmental factors is expressed and modeled by D numbers. And a new combination rule for multiple D numbers is defined. Subjective weights and objective weights are considered in VIKOR process for more reasonable ranking results.

A numerical example is conducted to analyze and demonstrate the practicality and effectiveness of the proposed D-VIKOR approach. Category: [21459] [] submitted on 2017-12-13 09:10:04. Using Klauder’s Enhanced Quantization to Set a Bound to the Cosmological Constant, in Pre Planckian Space as a Way to Ascertain the Most Important Fundamental Physics Question. Authors: Comments: 5 Pages.

Would be entry into new FQXI contest We are looking at comparison of two action integrals and we identify the Lagrangian multiplier as setting up a constraint equation (on cosmological expansion). In FFP 15, in the Author’s presentation, one of the two compared action integrals was from Hambler’ Quantum Gravity reference, while another was given as similar to the action principle of the Hilbert idea of General Relativistic derivation of the Einstein Field Equations. What we have done is to replace the Hambler Quantum gravity reference based action integral with a result straight from John Klauder’s “Enhanced Quantization” tome. In doing so, with also a nod to Thanu Padamabhan’s treatment of the inflaton, we then commence to initiate an explicit bound upon the cosmological constant. The further approximation is to use the inflaton results, and conflate them with John Klauder’s Action principle for a way to, if we have the idea of a potential well, generalized by Klauder, with a wall of space time in the Pre Planckian regime to ask what bounds the Cosmological constant prior to inflation. We argue this is the most important fundamental question in physics today, for reasons we elaborate upon in the conclusion.

Key words, Ricci Scalar, inflaton physics. Category: [21458] [] submitted on 2017-12-13 10:19:11.

Unconventional Origins of Superconductivity Authors: Comments: 14 Pages. Physicists have shown that superconducting circuits—circuits that have zero electrical resistance—can function as piston-like mechanical quantum engines.

The new perspective may help researchers design quantum computers and other devices with improved efficiencies. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement. Category: [21457] [] submitted on 2017-12-13 11:00:55.

Trapped Rydberg Ion Quantum Computer Authors: Comments: 44 Pages. Physicists have built one of the first basic elements of a trapped Rydberg ion quantum computer: a single-qubit Rydberg gate. [28] An international team of researchers, affiliated with UNIST has presented a core technology for quantum photonic devices used in quantum information processing. They have proposed combining of quantum dots for generating light and silicon photonic technologies for manipulating light on a single device. [27] Concerning the development of quantum memories for the realization of global quantum networks, scientists of the Quantum Dynamics Division led by Professor Gerhard Rempe at the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics (MPQ) have now achieved a major breakthrough: they demonstrated the long-lived storage of a photonic qubit on a single atom trapped in an optical resonator.

[26] Achieving strong light-matter interaction at the quantum level has always been a central task in quantum physics since the emergence of quantum information and quantum control. [25] Operation at the single-photon level raises the possibility of developing entirely new communication and computing devices, ranging from hardware random number generators to quantum computers. [24] Considerable interest in new single-photon detector technologies has been scaling in this past decade. [23] Engineers develop key mathematical formula for driving quantum experiments.

[22] Physicists are developing quantum simulators, to help solve problems that are beyond the reach of conventional computers. [21] Engineers at Australia's University of New South Wales have invented a radical new architecture for quantum computing, based on novel 'flip-flop qubits', that promises to make the large-scale manufacture of quantum chips dramatically cheaper-and easier-than thought possible.

[20] A team of researchers from the U.S. And Italy has built a quantum memory device that is approximately 1000 times smaller than similar devices— small enough to install on a chip. [19] Category: [21455] [] submitted on 2017-12-13 11:45:00. Large Scale Traffic Surveillance:Vehicle Detection and Classification Using Cascade Classifier and Convolutional Neural Network Authors: Comments: 8 Pages.

In this Paper, we are presenting a traffic surveillance system for detection and classification of vehicles in large scale videos. Vehicle detection is crucial part of Road safety. There are lots of different intelligent systems proposed for traffic surveillance. The system presented here is based on two steps, a descriptor of the image type haar-like, and a classifier type convolutional neural networks. A cascade classifier is used to extract objects rapidly and a neural network is used for final classification of cars. In case of Haar Cascades, the learning of the system is performed on a set of positive images (vehicles) and negative images (non-vehicle), and the test is done on another set of scenes.

For the second, we have used faster R-CNN architecture. The cascade classifier gives faster processing time and Neural Network is used to increase the detection rate. Category: [21454] [] submitted on 2017-12-13 12:18:00.

Smart Irrigation:Iot Based Irrigation Monitoring System Authors:,, Comments: 6 Pages. The project aims at autonomous monitoring of irrigation system in both large and small scale plantation estates with a view to eradicating the manual system which involves personal liability concerns and the ignorance of the field workers. Even sometimes the experienced people cannot assure how much fertilizers or water must be used for the maximum yield. Hence our system will monitor the temperature, humidity, moisture content of the soil and other physical factors like presence of major pollutants in air like PM2.5, PM10, CO,NOx etc. The factors and the crop yield are compared with dataset of past surveys and will try to predict is irrigation is necessary or not. With the help of this information, the rate of releasing water from pumps is decided and fed to a microcontroller system which supervises and controls the whole irrigation system.

Besides, there is also provision to monitor plant growth both in longitudinally and horizontally. Category: [21453] [] submitted on 2017-12-13 12:40:41. Is The Equivalence Principle Correct Authors: Comments: 6 Pages.

ABSTRACT The Equivalence principle. 'Bodies which are moving under the sole influence of a gravitational field receive an acceleration, which does not in the least depend on the material or the physical state of the body. For instance, a piece of lead and a piece of wood fall in exactly the same manner in a gravitational field (in vacuo) when they start off from rest or with the same initial velocity.'

There appears to be an error in the formation of the equivalence principle (and here the author gives the evidence of that error), which when corrected would lead to a new understanding of stellar formation and planetary orbits, including an explanation of why trinary star systems are not observed - as opposed to a binary pair with another star orbiting that pair (or vice versa). Einstein used a Gedankenexperiment with a man in a chest, to prove that falling objects of differing masses all fall at the same rate for the man in the chest who is being accelerated at a steady 9.8 m/s^2, and the man on Earth who is experiencing 9.8 m/s^2 of gravity. It can be proved that the equivalence principle does not hold when the falling object used as an example is an extremely large mass. The logical conclusion therefore is that by reducing the extremely large mass down to more normal mass values, although the objects appear to fall at the same rate, they do not, but as the difference is minute, it can be, and is, customarily ignored. This does not matter on Earth, but it does matter a great deal for planetary formation and orbits, and for stellar and galactic formation. Category: [21451] [] submitted on 2017-12-13 15:09:00.

Circularly Polarized Microstrip Antenna with Reactive Load Design for Wireless Local Area Network Application Authors: Comments: 6 Pages. This paper presents a design of microstrip antenna for IEEE 802.11b and for IEEE 802.11g using a nearly square patch antenna, excited by a standard miniature adapter probe feed line. The patch and ground plane are separated by a substrate; the radiating patch is loaded by a central shorting pin and feeding probe loaded by a series capacitor. This antenna has a wide bandwidth in the frequency band of (WLAN) and with a return loss ≤ −10 dB from 2.4 GHz to 2.48 GHz exhibits circularly polarized far-field radiation pattern. The proposed antennas have been simulated and analyzed using method of moments (MoM) based software package Microwave Office 2008 v8.0. The results show that the bandwidth of the antenna increases by using reactive load.

The simulated gain of the antenna is over 6 dB. IEEE802.11b و IEEE802.11g Category: [21450] [] submitted on 2017-12-13 15:27:41. DS-Vikor: a New Methodology for Supplier Selection Authors:,, Comments: 15 Pages. How to select the optimal supplier is an open and important issue in supply chain management (SCM), which needs to solve the problem of assessment and sorting the potential suppliers, and can be considered as a multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) problem. Experts’ assessment play a very important role in the process of supplier selection, while the subjective judgment of human beings could introduce unpredictable uncertainty. However, existing methods seem powerless to represent and deal with this uncertainty effectively.

Dempster-Shafer evidence theory (D- S theory) is widely used to uncertainty modeling, decision making and conflicts management due to its advantage to handle uncertain information. The VIKOR method has a great advantage to handle MCDM problems with non-commensurable and even conflicting criteria, and to obtain the compromised optimal solution. In this paper, a DS- VIKOR method is proposed for the supplier selection problem which expends the VIKOR method by D-S theory. In this method, the basic probability assignment (BPA) is used to denote the decision makers’ assessment for suppliers, Deng entropy weight-based method is defined and applied to determine the weights of multi-criteria, and VIKOR method is used for getting the final ranking results. An illustrative example under real life is conducted to analyze and demonstrate the practicality and effectiveness of the proposed DS-VIKOR method. Category: [21448] [] submitted on 2017-12-14 00:52:04. Proposed Civilization Scale Authors: Comments: Pages.

Instead of measuring a civilization's level of technological advancement based on energy consumption point of view, I believe it is more appropriate on it's capability of commanding the cycle and recycle of energy and matter; or based on the knowledge and technology of mastering the energy and matter: • Type 0 Civilization: Parasitic; • Type I: Energy Mastery; • Type II: Energy and Matter Mastery, achieving mastery of energy and matter. Category: [21446] [] submitted on 2017-12-14 01:05:01. Stochastic Functions of Blueshift vs. Redshift Authors: Comments: Pages. Viewing the random motions of objects, an observer might think it is 50-50 chances that an object would move toward or away. It might be intuitive, however, it is far from the truth.

This study derives the probability functions of Doppler blueshift and redshift effect of signal detection. The fact is, Doppler redshift detection is highly dominating in space, surface, and linear observation. Under the conditions of no quality loss of radiation over distance, and the observer has perfect vision; It is more than 92% probability of detecting redshift, in three-dimensional observation, 87% surface, and 75% linear. In cosmic observation, only 7.81% of the observers in the universe will detect blueshift of radiations from any object, on average. The remaining 92.19% of the observers in the universe will detect redshift. It it universal for all observers, aliens or Earthlings at all locations of the universe.

Category: [21445] [] submitted on 2017-12-14 06:22:28. Without Dark Energy Authors: Comments: 40 Pages. Three mathematicians have a different explanation for the accelerating expansion of the universe that does without theories of 'dark energy.' [26] The arrow of time and the accelerated expansion are two fundamental empirical facts of the universe. [25] The intensive, worldwide search for dark matter, the missing mass in the universe, has so far failed to find an abundance of dark, massive stars or scads of strange new weakly interacting particles, but a new candidate is slowly gaining followers and observational support.

[24] “We invoke a different theory, the self-interacting dark matter model or SIDM, to show that dark matter self-interactions thermalize the inner halo, which ties ordinary dark matter and dark matter distributions together so that they behave like a collective unit.” [23] Technology proposed 30 years ago to search for dark matter is finally seeing the light. [22] They're looking for dark matter—the stuff that theoretically makes up a quarter of our universe. [21] Results from its first run indicate that XENON1T is the most sensitive dark matter detector on Earth. [20] Category: [21443] [] submitted on 2017-12-12 06:45:11. Particle Double Nature Reason Authors: Comments: 34 Pages. How The Matter Is Created?

Why The Particle Has Double Nature? What's The Gravity Reason And Mechanism? Does the gravity needs time to effect or works instantly?

If the Planet moves by gravity, why does the moon revolve the Metonic cycle which the Earth doesn't? The Matter Creation is the main question I discuss in this paper, tries to explain why the Particle has double nature. ( Paper Main Hypothesis: 'The Matter Is Made Of Light') Category: [21442] [] submitted on 2017-12-12 07:27:51.

Undulating Relativity + §26 Mercury Perihelion Advance of 42.99'. Authors: Comments: 144 Pages. The Special Theory of Relativity takes us to two results that presently are considered “inexplicable” to many renowned scientists, to know: -The dilatation of time, and -The contraction of the Lorentz Length. The solution to these have driven the author to the development of the Undulating Relativity (UR) theory, where the Temporal variation is due to the differences on the route of the light propagation and the lengths are constants between two landmarks in uniform relative movement Category: [21440] [] submitted on 2017-12-12 08:57:22.

Storage of a Photonic Qubit Authors: Comments: 41 Pages. Concerning the development of quantum memories for the realization of global quantum networks, scientists of the Quantum Dynamics Division led by Professor Gerhard Rempe at the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics (MPQ) have now achieved a major breakthrough: they demonstrated the long-lived storage of a photonic qubit on a single atom trapped in an optical resonator.

[26] Achieving strong light-matter interaction at the quantum level has always been a central task in quantum physics since the emergence of quantum information and quantum control. [25] Operation at the single-photon level raises the possibility of developing entirely new communication and computing devices, ranging from hardware random number generators to quantum computers. [24] Considerable interest in new single-photon detector technologies has been scaling in this past decade.

[23] Engineers develop key mathematical formula for driving quantum experiments. [22] Physicists are developing quantum simulators, to help solve problems that are beyond the reach of conventional computers.

[21] Engineers at Australia's University of New South Wales have invented a radical new architecture for quantum computing, based on novel 'flip-flop qubits', that promises to make the large-scale manufacture of quantum chips dramatically cheaper-and easier-than thought possible. [20] A team of researchers from the U.S.

And Italy has built a quantum memory device that is approximately 1000 times smaller than similar devices— small enough to install on a chip. [19] The cutting edge of data storage research is working at the level of individual atoms and molecules, representing the ultimate limit of technological miniaturisation. [18] This is an important clue for our theoretical understanding of optically controlled magnetic data storage media. [17] A crystalline material that changes shape in response to light could form the heart of novel light-activated devices.

[16] Category: [21437] [] submitted on 2017-12-12 13:58:40. The Globotoroid Authors: Comments: 16 Pages. This review paper was written in 2014, and since has raised quite a few eyebrows in academia. The simplicity of the globotoroid model is far reaching, and alters some central themes in mathematics and sciences - Namely, the singularity based theories.

Mathematical models can give us invaluable insights into natural phenomena, and as such play an important role in science. The intent of this paper is to give a high-level overview of a simple continuous dynamical model that offers an insight into a qualitative behavior seldom reported or discussed. This model has no equilibrium or singular points, yet its phase space unveils four distinct topological features: a limit cycle, a torus, a sphere and a wormhole.

Each of these features results from model solutions that can be periodic, quasi-periodic and chaotic, which collectively form a space-time structure referred to as the globotoroid. The model generalizes the energy behavior of many processes of interest, and consequently is reshaping contemporary systems theory to fit more completely with different natural phenomena. Specifically, the globotoroid is the simplest 3-dimensional dynamic model that exposes the concept of the wormhole, which embodies an important energy behavior throughout our universe. The fields of science that may benefit from this modeling approach are many, including physics, cosmology, biology, chemistry, engineering, cognitive sciences, economics, politics, and business and finance.

This is demonstrated by reviewing some well-known phenomena in natural and social sciences. Category: [21436] [] submitted on 2017-12-12 14:37:36. Gravity & Electromagnetism Unified Authors: Comments: 6 Pages. No one has ever provided mathematical evidence that unifies gravity and electromagnetism.

This is an important mathematical discovery. Note that the 2 classical equations of Newton's Gravity and Coulomb's Law have a similar form. Also note that when Limit (r) --->0, these 2 equations approach a singularity This implies that our universe collapses to a single point for unification. Each reader must comprehend that our universe literally blinks, off and on, 1.1 trillion cycles each second (1.1 THz). See my related articles, including the blinking universe calculation and 1024-QAM for elementary particles. There are 3 mathematical approaches and 3 empirical sources that all conclude the same idea - our universe is blinking. As Einstein once said, 'Reality is merely an illusion.'

- A blinking universe would certainly make his statement correct. Category: [21435] [] submitted on 2017-12-12 14:43:39. Time Travel: An Approximate Mathematical Solution Authors: Comments: 9 Pages.

This short technical note describes an approximate mathematical solution for Time Travel involving relativity and very brief time intervals. Limitations of the solution are discussed including possible error sources. Assumptions are made for small changes in the speed of light and for the Lighthouse Frequency, which has been described in previous papers. This paper will only be meaningful to those with a background in calculus. Each reader must comprehend that our universe literally blinks off and on, approximately 1.1 trillion times every second. The solution is derived by taking the partial derivative with respect to time, of E=mc^2. Readers will note that the speed of light is not constant per NASA scientist, Dr Daniel Gezari's important 2009 paper.

Category: [21434] [] submitted on 2017-12-12 14:49:56. The Discovery of Parallel Universes Authors: Comments: 13 Pages. This short paper presents information into technology that has been used to move between two parallel universes. Described here are the technology characteristics of glowing orbs or balls of light, which have been photographed and filmed, all over the world. By utilizing the blinking frequency of our universe, it is possible to move between parallel universes. These orbs have been reported as glowing and/or pulsing and some appear to be 12 to 14 inches in diameter.

Each reader must comprehend that our universe is blinking off and on, approximately 1.1 trillion cycles every second. The energy required to transit between two parallel universes is E = Volts * Amp * sec Where volts is proportional to the mass, and Amp*sec is the 'electrical distance' or 'range' between the two universes. Pictures and videos are referenced for discussion. Category: [21433] [] submitted on 2017-12-12 14:54:56. Faster Than Light Travel: The Basic Mechanics Authors: Comments: 13 Pages. This short technical paper presents the first practical technology solution for traveling faster than the speed of light.

Light-years of distance can be traversed by performing millions of “hops;” yet the entire distance traveled requires only a fraction of a second. Each reader must comprehend that our universe is literally blinking off and on, more than 1.1 trillion times every second. For those unconvinced that our universe is blinking, please read “The First Periodic Table for Elementary Particles,” which provides compelling mathematical evidence. Also see youtube: Colonel Philip Corso, THE DAY AFTER ROSWELL; author comments on the Army's investigation of the 1947 Roswell vehicle; 'We were never able to figure out how the propulsion system works. We only know it has something to do with blinking.' Recorded 1997. Category: [21432] [] submitted on 2017-12-12 15:01:54.

The First Periodic Table for Elementary Particles Authors: Comments: 13 Pages. This short technical paper presents a new standard model for Elementary Particles.

All elementary particle masses are related by simple math. This math is similar to the math used for wifi signals and it is called 1024-QAM.

The 1024-QAM table graphically displays how all elementary particles are related, similar to the Standard Periodic Table in chemistry. If we line up all of the particle masses in order, we find there are a number of “gaps.” These are called the 'mass gaps', and they line up perfectly with 1024-QAM, which fits the sequence. Supersymmetry (SUSY) is also found to occur with 1024-QAM. Mass Groups 1 thru 8 have heavyweight counterparts which are found in Mass Groups 9 thru 16. New particles appear in groups of 4. Numerous new particles are predicted using 1024-QAM. Each particle mass is shown to have 16 probabilities - 4 charges X 4 spins.

The only possible explanation for elementary particles to follow a QAM pattern, is due to a blinking universe. This ebook provides compelling evidence that our universe is literally blinking, off and on. Category: [21431] [] submitted on 2017-12-12 15:08:22. Mathematical Solution Unifying the Four Fundamental Forces Authors: Comments: 13 Pages. This short technical ebook describes a simple mathematical solution for unifying the four fundamental forces in nature.

The fundamental forces of gravitation, electromagnetism, strong force, and the weak force are actually different aspects of the same force. In general, the relationship between the four forces can be described using a form of the equation for Analog Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (Analog-QAM). This equation form is developed utilizing the concept of a “blinking” physical universe.

The approach to develop the solution is described by minimizing the number of available dimensions (zero), which is in contrast to numerous efforts (String theory, M-theory, Quantum gravity) that attempt to maximize the number of dimensions under consideration. An Electrical Universe (EU) model is presented that provides sufficient conditions for a solution. This mathematical solution should be tested against experimental data to confirm its validity, however it is noted that, “discrete-time” forces will be measured differently than “time-averaged” forces in a laboratory environment. Confirmation of the theory is suggested through small, discrete-time interval measurements of gravitational acceleration and the Electromagnetic Force, where they will be seen to vary continuously, and yet also retain a “time-averaged” value. Each reader must comprehend that our universe literally blinks, off and on, more than 1 trillion cycles each second. Category: [21430] [] submitted on 2017-12-12 15:15:48. Massless Travel Authors: Comments: 6 Pages.

This short technical paper discuss a method and technology that can be utilized to minimize energy requirements for all kinds of travel. Specifically, there are three types of travel under discussion: (1) Time Travel, (2) Distance Travel, and (3) Travel between parallel universes.

The method requires precise control, synchronization, and amplification of very high frequencies, which is difficult for current technology computer processors. To reduce the effective mass value or weight of a vehicle, requires extremely fast clocks, called gamma-ray clocks. These clocks operate at about 10^21 cycles per second. Each reader must comprehend that our physical universe literally blinks, off and on, more than 1.1 trillion times every second. By synchronizing an electrical signal on a vehicle with the neutral point in the blinking cycle - the effective mass of the vehicle will approach zero. Category: [21429] [] submitted on 2017-12-12 15:22:33.

Anomalous Magnetic Moment: Source and Explanation Authors: Comments: 8 Pages. This paper explains the anomalous magnetic moment for all elementary particles and composite particles (such as the proton). The special case regarding the Muon anomaly is addressed. It also presents a summary of the issues in accurately measuring the magnetic dipole moment for elementary particles.

The explanation provided involves simple math and probabilities. It is not complex, such as Yang-Mills and related theories.

In summary, there is no anomaly. The measurement of the magnetic moment is a time-averaged value for 16 different probabilities (4 charges X 4 spins) for each particle mass, which is consistent with 1024-QAM. To eliminate the anomaly, a measurement of the particle characteristics and magnetic moment must be taken at a rate faster than the blinking universe, or 1.1 trillion cycles per second. Visual graphs and areas for further research are suggested. Category: [21428] [] submitted on 2017-12-12 21:42:30.

On the Limit Energy of Cosmic Rays Authors: Comments: 4 Pages. It is established that the upper limit of cosmic-ray energy due to the Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin effect is local. On the basis of the mechanistic interpretation of J. Wheeler's geometrodynamic concept, a more fundamental limitation on this limit was established, which, in the final analysis, depends on Planck's size (ђγ/c^3)^1/2 and for protons the limit is 4.51×10^18 eV. The inflection in the spectrum curve, the 'knee', corresponds to the mass-energy of the vortex tube of the limiting proton-electron contour, 1.46×10^15 eV. For other nuclei these energies increase in proportion to the atomic number of the element.

Category: [21425] [] submitted on 2017-12-13 03:42:44. A Derivation of Dirac Equation from a General System of Linear First Order Partial Differential Equations Authors: Comments: 12 Pages. In this work, we discuss a method to derive Dirac equation and other equations, such as the Cauchy-Riemann equations, from a general system of linear first order partial differential equations, with the hope that when studied more thoroughly the general system may provide deeper insights into geometrical and topological structures of quantum particles and fields. Category: [21424] [] submitted on 2017-12-13 04:09:51.

Quantum Photonic Devices Authors: Comments: 43 Pages. An international team of researchers, affiliated with UNIST has presented a core technology for quantum photonic devices used in quantum information processing. They have proposed combining of quantum dots for generating light and silicon photonic technologies for manipulating light on a single device. [27]Concerning the development of quantum memories for the realization of global quantum networks, scientists of the Quantum Dynamics Division led by Professor Gerhard Rempe at the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics (MPQ) have now achieved a major breakthrough: they demonstrated the long-lived storage of a photonic qubit on a single atom trapped in an optical resonator. [26] Achieving strong light-matter interaction at the quantum level has always been a central task in quantum physics since the emergence of quantum information and quantum control.

[25] Operation at the single-photon level raises the possibility of developing entirely new communication and computing devices, ranging from hardware random number generators to quantum computers. [24] Considerable interest in new single-photon detector technologies has been scaling in this past decade. [23] Engineers develop key mathematical formula for driving quantum experiments.

[22] Physicists are developing quantum simulators, to help solve problems that are beyond the reach of conventional computers. [21] Engineers at Australia's University of New South Wales have invented a radical new architecture for quantum computing, based on novel 'flip-flop qubits', that promises to make the large-scale manufacture of quantum chips dramatically cheaper-and easier-than thought possible. [20] A team of researchers from the U.S. And Italy has built a quantum memory device that is approximately 1000 times smaller than similar devices— small enough to install on a chip. [19] The cutting edge of data storage research is working at the level of individual atoms and molecules, representing the ultimate limit of technological miniaturisation. [18] Category: [21422] [] submitted on 2017-12-13 06:52:57.

Adaptively Evidential Weighted Classifier Combination Authors:,,, Comments: 9 Pages. Classifier combination plays an important role in classification. Due to the efficiency to handle and fuse uncertain information, Dempster-Shafer evidence theory is widely used in multi-classifiers fusion. In this paper, a method of adaptively evidential weighted classifier combination is presented. In our proposed method, the output of each classifier is modelled by basic probability assignment (BPA).

Then, the weights are determined adaptively for individual classifier according to the uncertainty degree of the corresponding BPA. The uncertainty degree is measured by a belief entropy, named as Deng entropy. Discounting-and-combination scheme in D-S theory is used to calculate the weighted BPAs and combine them for the final BPA for classification. The effectiveness of the proposed weighted combination method is illustrated by numerical experimental results. Category: [21421] [] submitted on 2017-12-12 03:53:52. On the General Solution for the Nonlinear Differential Equation from Troesch Boundary Value Problem Authors:,,,, Comments: 3 pages This paper shows, for the first time, that the explicit and exact solution to the Troesch nonlinear two-point boundary value problem may be computed in a direct and straightforward fashion from the general solution obtained by a generalized Sundman transformation for the related differential equation, which appeared to be a special case of a more general equation. As a result, various initial and boundary value problems may be solved explicitly and exactly.

Category: [21420] [] submitted on 2017-12-12 06:21:21. Particle Double Nature Reason Authors: Comments: 34 Pages. How The Matter Is Created? Why The Particle Has Double Nature? What's The Gravity Reason And Mechanism? Does the gravity needs time to effect or works instantly?

If the Planet moves by gravity, why does the moon revolve the Metonic cycle which the Earth doesn't? The Matter Creation is the main question I discuss in this paper, tries to explain why the Particle has double nature. ( Paper Main Hypothesis: 'The Matter Is Made Of Light') Category: [21419] [] submitted on 2017-12-10 06:30:48. Misunderstanding Definition Of The Gravity Of General Relativity Authors: Comments: 4 Pages. A Highly Consistent Hypothesis Which Supports All The Observations Description in the theory of general relativity of the gravity is completely just a misunderstanding. Because curvature of space is caused by gravity.

Gravity is a field force that bends space, because it causes acceleration as shown by Newton. And a new theory of gravity which supports our observations is suggested named as neutral field. Category: Replacements of recent Submissions [8816] [] replaced on 2017-12-23 12:24:04. Explaining Duality Without Complementarity or 'Which Way' (Welcher-Weg) and Also Retro-Causality and Non-Locality Authors: Comments: Number of pages: 9 Explaining Duality without Complementarity or “which way” (welcher-weg) And also Retro-Causality and Non-Locality Sarma N.

Searching for the Gravific Photons Authors: Comments: 3 Pages. It was show that the linear momentum transported by electromagnetic waves has a negative component, in such way that, when a radiation incides on a surface, it is exerted a pressure on opposite direction to the direction of propagation of the radiation. In addition, it was predicted the existence of photons in which the negative component of the momentum is greater than the positive one. These photons were called attractive photons or gravific photons.

Here, we show how to produce and to detect this type of photons. Category: [8812] [] replaced on 2017-12-22 03:17:59. A Strange Coincidence in the Behaviour of Leptons and Mesons Authors: Comments: 5 Pages. According to the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), all hadrons are built of the Einstein-spacetime (ES) components (they are the neutrino-antineutrino pairs - their detection is much difficult than neutrinos) and neutrino(s). The ES components are the carriers of the photons and gluons (they are the rotational energies). It leads to conclusion that sometimes we should observe some coincidences in the behaviour of neutrinos and hadrons. Here we show one of such lepton-meson coincidence - there is the similarity of the curves for the neutrino cross-section per neutrino energy in quasi-elastic (QE) scattering and for the kaon-to-pion ratio - in both curves, there is a “horn” and the origin of the separated two curves is the same.

Category: [8810] [] replaced on 2017-12-22 03:27:16. On Quantization of Interacting Velocity Gauge Fields Authors: Comments: 4 Pages.

The many velocity gauge fields interaction Lagrangian density is extended to a continuous spectrum Lagrangian then quantized and normalized. The Euler-Lagrange equation is transformed to the Yang-Mills field, integral and curvature form operators. Fripside Split Tears Rar. The Yang-Mills field form operator quantization gives the equivalent Dirac equation, the integral form operator quantization gives perturbation series similar to the path integral formulation of Quantum mechanics and the curvature form operator is used to get the Einstein-Hilbert Lagrangian density; operators are quantized with mass eigenvalue.

Finally, the normalization of the wave function gives a charged massive particle Lagrangian density with six representations. Category: [8807] [] replaced on 2017-12-16 14:59:22.

Using Klauder's Enhanced Quantization to Set a Bound to the Cosmological Constant, in Pre Planckian Space as a Way to Ascertain the Most Important Fundamental Physics Question Authors: Comments: 6 Pages. ADDED A SECTION WHICH ANSWERS THE FQXI CONTEST QUESTIONS We are looking at comparison of two action integrals and we identify the Lagrangian multiplier as setting up a constraint equation (on cosmological expansion). In FFP 15, in the Author’s presentation, one of the two compared action integrals was from Hambler’ Quantum Gravity reference, while another was given as similar to the action principle of the Hilbert idea of General Relativistic derivation of the Einstein Field Equations.

What we have done is to replace the Hambler Quantum gravity reference based action integral with a result straight from John Klauder’s “Enhanced Quantization” tome. In doing so, with also a nod to Thanu Padamabhan’s treatment of the inflaton, we then commence to initiate an explicit bound upon the cosmological constant. The further approximation is to use the inflaton results, and conflate them with John Klauder’s Action principle for a way to, if we have the idea of a potential well, generalized by Klauder, with a wall of space time in the Pre Planckian regime to ask what bounds the Cosmological constant prior to inflation. We argue this is the most important fundamental question in physics today, for reasons we elaborate upon in the conclusion. Section 6 details my actual answers to the essay’s ideas, in lieu of the creation of this answer to the cosmological constant due to enhanced quantization. Category: [8805] [] replaced on 2017-12-21 07:57:25. On the General Solution for the Troesch, Sinh-Poisson and Poisson-Boltzmann Equations Authors:,,,, Comments: 4 pages This paper shows, for the first time, that the explicit and exact solution to the Troesch nonlinear two-point boundary value problem may be computed in a direct and straightforward fashion from the general solution obtained by a generalized Sundman transformation for the related differential equation, which appeared with the sinh-Poisson and Poisson-Boltzmann equations to be special cases of a more general equation.

As a result, various initial and boundary value problems for these equations may be solved explicitly and exactly.