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Lata Mangeshkar (born 28 September 1929) is an Indian playback singer, and occasional music-composer. She is one of the best-known and most respected playback singers in India. Mangeshkar's career started in 1942 and has spanned over seven decades.
She has recorded songs for over a thousand Hindi films and has sung songs in over thirty-six regional Indian languages and foreign languages, though primarily in Marathi and Hindi. She is the elder sister of singers Asha Bhosle, Hridaynath Mangeshkar, Usha Mangeshkar and Meena Mangeshkar.
India's highest award in cinema, the Dadasaheb Phalke Award, was bestowed on her in 1989 by the Government of India. She is the second vocalist, after M. Subbulakshmi, to have ever been awarded the Bharat Ratna, India's highest civilian honour. Disclaimer: The content provided in this “Lata Mangeshkar Old Songs” application is available free on public domains. We are just providing the way to stream videos. We don't claim right on any file in this application.
All the content provided in this application has the copy rights of their respective owners. Lata Mangeshkar Old Songs 1.2 for Android 4.0+ APK Download Version: 1.2 (3) for Android 4.0+ (Ice Cream Sandwich, API 14) Update on: 2016-07-29 Signature: ad58a4e9c25a076666dc8c4ceff06f APK File SHA1: edf68e9f7d0a45913d9dad49bc6bfe Lata Mangeshkar Old Songs 1.1 for Android 4.0+ APK Download Version: 1.1 (2) for Android 4.0+ (Ice Cream Sandwich, API 14) Update on: 2016-07-07 Signature: ad58a4e9c25a076666dc8c4ceff06f APK File SHA1: 531693f431cf5b743f564b2b269fcb.
• • • Bollywood, formally known as Hindi cinema, is the Indian film industry, based in the city of (formerly Bombay),,. Bollywood is part of the larger (also known as Indywood), which includes other production centers producing films in other. Linguistically, Bollywood films tend to use a dialect of, or, mutually intelligible to both Hindi and speakers, while modern Bollywood films also increasingly incorporate elements of. Is the world's largest in terms of film production, with an annual output of 1,986 feature films as of 2017, and Bollywood its its largest film producer, with 364 Hindi films produced annually as of 2017. Bollywood represents 43% of Indian net box office revenue, while and represent 36%, and the rest of the regional cinema constitute 21%, as of 2014. Bollywood is thus one of the largest centers of film production in the world. In terms of ticket sales, Bollywood sells an estimated 3.6 billion tickets annually across the globe, compared to 's 2.6 billion tickets sold.
Contents • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Etymology The name 'Bollywood' is a derived from Bombay (the former name for Mumbai) and (in ), the center of the. The naming scheme for 'Bollywood' was inspired by 'Tollywood', the name that was used to refer to the. Dating back to 1932, 'Tollywood' was the earliest, referring to the based in (in, ), whose name is reminiscent of 'Hollywood' and was the centre of the at the time. It was this 'chance juxtaposition of two pairs of rhyming syllables,' Holly and Tolly, that led to the portmanteau name 'Tollywood' being coined. The name 'Tollywood' went on to be used as a nickname for the Bengali film industry by the popular Calcutta-based youth magazine, establishing a precedent for other film industries to use similar-sounding names, eventually leading to the coining of 'Bollywood'. 'Tollywood' is now also popularly used to refer to the in and. The term 'Bollywood' itself has origins in the 1970s, when overtook the United States as the world's largest film producer.
Credit for the term has been claimed by several different people, including the lyricist, filmmaker and scholar Amit Khanna, and the journalist Bevinda Collaco. Bollywood does not exist as a physical place. Some deplore the name, arguing that it makes the industry look like a poor cousin to Hollywood. History Early history (1910s–1940s).
Is considered the father of Indian cinema, including Bollywood. (1913), by, is known as the first silent feature film made in. By the 1930s, the industry was producing over 200 films per annum. The first Indian sound film, 's (1931), was a major commercial success. There was clearly a huge market for talkies and musicals; Bollywood and all the regional film industries quickly switched to sound filming. The 1930s and 1940s were tumultuous times: was buffeted by the,, the, and the violence of the. Most Bollywood films were unabashedly, but there were also a number of filmmakers who tackled tough social issues, or used the struggle for Indian independence as a backdrop for their plots.
In 1937, Ardeshir Irani, of Alam Ara fame, made the first colour film in,. The next year, he made another colour film, a version of Mother India. However, colour did not become a popular feature until the late 1950s.
At this time, lavish romantic musicals and melodramas were the staple fare at the cinema. Prior to the 1947, which was divided into the and, the Bombay film industry (now called Bollywood) was closely to the film industry (now the industry of ), as both produced films in, or, the across northern and central India.
In the 1940s, many actors, filmmakers and musicians in the Lahore industry migrated to the Bombay industry, including actors such as,, and and singers such as, and. Around that time, filmmakers and actors from the based in (now Kolkata) also began migrating to the Bombay film industry, which for decades after partition would be dominated by actors, filmmakers and musicians with origins in what is today, along with those from. Golden Age (late 1940s–1960s) Following, the period from the late 1940s to the early 1960s is regarded by film historians as the 'Golden Age' of Hindi cinema. Some of the most critically acclaimed Hindi films of all time were produced during this period. Examples include (1957) and (1959) directed by and written by, (1951) and (1955) directed by and written by, and (1952) directed by and starring.
These films expressed social themes mainly dealing with working-class life in, particularly urban life in the former two examples; Awaara presented the city as both a nightmare and a dream, while Pyaasa critiqued the unreality of city life. 's (1957), a remake of his earlier (1940), was the first Indian film to be nominated for the, which it lost by a single vote. Mother India was also an important film that defined the conventions of Hindi cinema for decades. It spawned a new genre of, which was further defined by (1961). Written and produced by Dilip Kumar, Gunga Jumna was a dacoit about two brothers on opposite sides of the law, a theme that later became common in Indian films since the 1970s.
(1958), directed by and written by, popularised the theme of in. Some of the most famous of Hindi cinema were also produced at the time, such as 's (1960). Other acclaimed mainstream Hindi filmmakers at the time included and. And in (1949).
Kapoor and Kumar are among the greatest and most influential movie stars in the history of Indian cinema, while Nargis is one of its greatest actresses. Successful actors at the time included,,, and, while successful actresses included,,,,,, and. The three most popular male Indian actors of the 1950s and 1960s were Dilip Kumar, Raj Kapoor, and Dev Anand, each with their own unique acting style.
Kapoor followed the ' style of, Anand modelled himself after the 'suave' style of stars like and, and Kumar pioneered a form of that was similar to yet predated Hollywood method actors such as. Kumar, who was described as 'the ultimate method actor' by and is considered one of India's greatest actors, inspired future generations of Indian actors; much like Brando's influence on and, Kumar had a similar influence on later Indian actors such as,, and. While commercial Hindi cinema was thriving, the 1950s also saw the emergence of a new movement. Though the movement was mainly led by, it also began gaining prominence in Hindi cinema. The movement emphasized. Early examples of films in this movement include (1946) directed by and based on the, (1946) directed by and written by Khwaja Ahmad Abbas, and Bimal Roy's (1953).
Their critical acclaim, as well as the latter's commercial success, paved the way for Indian and the Indian New Wave. Some of the internationally acclaimed Hindi filmmakers involved in the movement included,,,, and. Ever since the film Neecha Nagar won the at the, Hindi films were frequently in competition for the at the throughout the 1950s and early 1960s, with some of them winning major prizes at the festival., while overlooked in his own lifetime, had belatedly generated international recognition much later in the 1980s. Dutt is now regarded as one of the greatest of all time, alongside the more famous Indian Bengali filmmaker.
The 2002 critics' and directors' poll of greatest filmmakers ranked Dutt at No. 73 on the list. Some of his films are now included among the, with (1957) being featured in list, and with both Pyaasa and (1959) tied at No. 160 in the 2002 Sight & Sound critics' and directors' poll of all-time greatest films.
Several other Hindi films from this era were also ranked in the Sight & Sound poll, including 's (1951), 's (1952), 's (1957) and 's (1960) all tied at No. 346 on the list. In the late 1960s and early 1970s, the industry was dominated by musical with 'romantic hero' leads, the most popular being. Other actors during this period include,,,, and, and actresses like,,, and. Classic Bollywood (1970s–1980s). The screenwriting duo, consisting of (l) and (r), revolutionized Indian cinema in the 1970s, and are considered Bollywood's greatest.
By the start of the 1970s, Hindi cinema was experiencing thematic stagnation, dominated by musical. The arrival of screenwriter duo, consisting of and, marked a paradigm shift, revitalizing the industry. They began the genre of gritty, violent, in the early 1970s, with films such as (1973) and (1975). They reinterpreted the rural themes of 's (1957) and 's (1961) in a contemporary urban context reflecting the and climate of 1970s India, channeling the growing discontent and disillusionment among the masses, and unprecedented growth of, and dealing with themes involving urban poverty, corruption, and crime, as well as themes. This resulted in their creation of the 'angry young man', personified by, who reinterpreted Dilip Kumar's performance in Gunga Jumna in a contemporary urban context, and giving a voice to the angst of the urban poor. The most successful Indian actor during the 1970s–1980s, he is considered one of India's greatest and most influential movie stars. By the mid-1970s, romantic confections had made way for gritty, violent crime films and about gangsters () and bandits ().
The writing of Salim-Javed and acting of Amitabh Bachchan popularized the trend, with films such as Zanjeer and particularly Deewaar, a crime film inspired by Gunga Jumna that pitted 'a policeman against his brother, a gang leader based on real-life smuggler ' portrayed by Bachchan; Deewaar was described as being 'absolutely key to Indian cinema'. Along with Bachchan, other actors that rode the crest of this trend include,,,,, and, which lasted into the early 1990s. Actresses from this era included,,,,,,,,, and. The 1970s was also when the name 'Bollywood' was coined, and when the quintessential conventions of commercial Bollywood films were established. Key to this was the emergence of the genre, which combines elements of multiple genres (,,,,, ). The masala film was pioneered in the early 1970s by filmmaker, along with screenwriter duo Salim-Javed, pioneering the Bollywood format. (1973), directed by Hussain and written by Salim-Javed, has been identified as the first masala film and the 'first' quintessentially 'Bollywood' film.
Salim-Javed went on to write more successful masala films in the 1970s and 1980s. Masala films launched Amitabh Bachchan into the biggest Bollywood movie star of the 1970s and 1980s.
A landmark for the masala film genre was (1977), directed by and written. Manmohan Desai went on to successfully exploit the genre in the 1970s and 1980s.
Both these trends, the masala film and the violent crime film, are represented by the blockbuster (1975), written by Salim-Javed and starring Amitabh Bachchan. It combined the conventions of Mother India and Gunga Jumna with that of, spawning the genre (also known as the '), which was popular in the 1970s.
Some Hindi filmmakers such as continued to produce realistic throughout the 1970s, alongside,,, and. However, the 'art film' bent of the Film Finance Corporation came under criticism during a Committee on Public Undertakings investigation in 1976, which accused the body of not doing enough to encourage commercial cinema. The 1970s thus saw the rise of commercial cinema in the form of enduring films such as (1975), which consolidated 's position as a lead actor. The devotional classic was also released in 1975. The most internationally acclaimed Hindi film of the 1980s was 's (1988), which won the at the and was nominated for the. New Bollywood (1990s–present). One of the ', in 2012.
He was the most successful Indian actor for most of the 1990s and 2000s. In the late 1980s, Hindi cinema experienced another period of stagnation, with a decline in box office turnout, due to increasing violence, decline in musical melodic quality, and rise in video piracy, leading to middle-class family audiences abandoning theaters.
The turning point came with (1988), directed by, written and produced by his father, and starring his cousin with. Its blend of youthfulness, wholesome entertainment, emotional quotients and strong melodies lured family audiences back to the big screen. It set a new template for Bollywood musical romance films that defined Hindi cinema in the 1990s. The period of Hindi cinema from the 1990s onwards is referred to as 'New Bollywood' cinema, linked to during the early 1990s.
By the early 1990s, the pendulum had swung back toward family-centric romantic musicals. Qayamat Se Qayamat Tak was followed by blockbusters such as (1989), (1989), (1994), (1995), (1996), (1997), (1998) and (1998). A new generation of popular actors emerged, such as Aamir Khan,,,, (), and, and actresses such as,,,,,, and. In that point of time, action films and comedy films were also successful, with actors like,,, Akshay Kumar, and Ajay Devgan, with Akshay Kumar gaining popularity for dangerous in in his well-known and other action films.
Other actresses during this time included,,,, and. This decade also marked the entry of new performers in and independent films, some of which succeeded commercially, the most influential example being (1998), directed by and written. The critical and commercial success of Satya led to the emergence of a distinct genre known as, urban films reflecting social problems in the city of. This led to a resurgence of by the end of the decade. These films often featured actors like and, and actresses like,, and, whose performances were usually critically acclaimed. One of the 'Three Khans', in 2008.
He has been the most successful Indian actor since the late 2000s. Since the 1990s, the three biggest Bollywood movie stars have been the ':,, and. Combined, they have starred in the top ten. The three Khans have had successful careers since the late 1980s, and have dominated the Indian box office since the 1990s, across three decades.
Shah Rukh Khan was the most successful Indian actor for most of the 1990s and 2000s, while Aamir Khan has been the most successful Indian actor since the late 2000s; according to, Aamir Khan is 'arguably the world's biggest movie star' as of 2017, due to his immense popularity in the world's two, India and. The 2000s saw a growth in Bollywood's recognition across the world due to a growing and prospering and communities overseas. A fast growth in the Indian economy and a demand for quality entertainment in this era, led the nation's film-making to new heights in terms of production values, cinematography and innovative story lines as well as technical advances in areas such as special effects and animation. Some of the largest production houses, among them and were the producers of new modern films.
Some popular films of the decade were (2000), (2001), (2001), (2003), (2003), (2006), (2006), (2006), (2006) and (2007) among others. This decade also saw the rise of popular actors and movie stars like,,,, and, as well as actresses like,,,,,,, and. One of the 'Three Khans', with Bollywood actresses (from left),,,,, and, in, 2010. In the 2010s, the industry saw the trend of established movie stars like Salman Khan, Akshay Kumar and Shahrukh Khan making big-budget entertainers like (2010), (2012), (2012), (2013), (2014) and (2014) opposite much younger actresses.
These films were often not the subject of critical acclaim, but were nonetheless major commercial successes. On the other hand, Aamir Khan has been credited for redefining and modernizing the (which originated from his uncle ) with his own distinct brand of cinema in the early 21st century, earning both commercial success and critical acclaim.
While most stars from the 2000s continued their successful careers into the next decade, the 2010s also saw the rise of a new generation of popular actors like,,,,,, and, as well as actresses like,,,,,,, and, with Balan and Ranaut gaining wide recognition for successful female-centric films such as (2011), (2012) and (2014), and (2015). And are among the few working actresses from the 2000s who successfully completed 15 years in the industry. Influences for Bollywood Moti Gokulsing and Wimal Dissanayake identify six major influences that have shaped the conventions of Indian popular cinema: • The ancient of and which have exerted a profound influence on the thought and imagination of Indian popular cinema, particularly in its narratives. Examples of this influence include the techniques of a, and.
Indian popular films often have plots which branch off into sub-plots; such narrative dispersals can clearly be seen in the 1993 films and. • Ancient, with its highly stylised nature and emphasis on spectacle, where, and gesture combined 'to create a vibrant artistic unit with dance and mime being central to the dramatic experience.'
Sanskrit dramas were known as, derived from the root word nrit (dance), characterising them as spectacular dance-dramas which has continued Indian cinema. The theory of dating back to ancient Sanskrit drama is believed to be one of the most fundamental features that differentiate Indian cinema, particularly Hindi cinema, from that of the Western world. • The traditional folk, which became popular from around the 10th century with the decline of Sanskrit theatre.
These regional traditions include the of, the of, and the of. • The, which 'blended and, music and dance, narrative and spectacle, earthy dialogue and ingenuity of stage presentation, integrating them into a dramatic discourse of.
The Parsi plays contained crude humour, melodious songs and music, sensationalism and dazzling stagecraft.' •, where were popular from the 1920s to the 1950s, though Indian filmmakers departed from their counterparts in several ways. 'For example, the Hollywood musicals had as their plot the world of entertainment itself. Indian filmmakers, while enhancing the elements of fantasy so pervasive in Indian popular films, used song and music as a natural mode of articulation in a given situation in their films. There is a strong Indian tradition of narrating mythology, history, fairy stories and so on through song and dance.' In addition, 'whereas Hollywood filmmakers strove to conceal the constructed nature of their work so that the realistic narrative was wholly dominant, Indian filmmakers made no attempt to conceal the fact that what was shown on the screen was a creation, an illusion, a fiction. However, they demonstrated how this creation intersected with people's day to day lives in complex and interesting ways.'
• Western musical television, particularly, which has had an increasing influence since the 1990s, as can be seen in the pace, camera angles, dance sequences and music of 2000s Indian films. An early example of this approach was in 's (1995). Sharmistha Gooptu and Bhaumik identify / culture as a major influence. In the early 20th century, was the of popular cultural performances across northern India, established in popular traditions such as dancing,, and Parsi theater. Urdu and related were the most widely understood across northern India, thus became the standardized language of early Indian. The ( Arabian Nights) also had a strong influence, on Parsi theater which performed ' adventure-romances' that were adapted into films, and on early Bombay cinema where ' Arabian Nights cinema' was a popular genre.
The scholars Chaudhuri Diptakirti and, and the screenwriter, identify as a major influence on Hindi cinema. Most of the screenwriters and scriptwriters of classic Hindi cinema often came from Urdu literary backgrounds, from and to and, while a handful of screenwriters and scriptwriters also came from other traditions such as and.
Most of Hindi cinema's classic scriptwriters wrote their scripts and dialogues mainly in Urdu, including the likes of Salim-Javed,,,, Rahi Masoom Raza and. Urdu poetry had a particularly strong impact on, where the lyrics draw heavily from Urdu poetry and the tradition. Todd Stadtman identifies several foreign influences on commercial Bollywood in the 1970s, including, Italian, and. Starting with (1975), Bollywood films up until the 1990s often incorporated fight sequences inspired by 1970s from. Rather than following the Hollywood model, Bollywood action scenes tended to follow the Hong Kong model, with an emphasis on acrobatics and, and combining (as it was perceived by Indians) with (particularly ). Influence of Bollywood India Perhaps the biggest influence of Bollywood has been on nationalism in itself, where along with rest of Indian cinema, it has become part and parcel of the 'Indian story'.
In India, Bollywood is often associated with India's national identity. In the words of the economist and Bollywood biographer, Cinema actually has been the most vibrant medium for telling its own story, the story of its struggle for independence, its constant struggle to achieve national integration and to emerge as a global presence. Bollywood has had an impact on Indian society and culture for a long time.
For many decades, Bollywood has influenced daily life and culture in India, where it has been the biggest entertainment industry. Many of the musical, dancing, wedding and fashion trends in India, for example, have been influenced by Bollywood. Some of the biggest Bollywood fashion trendsetters have included in (1960) and in (1994). Bollywood has also had a impact on Indian society, reflecting over the decades. In classic Bollywood cinema of the 1970s, for example, popular written by and starring, such as (1973) and (1975), reflected the and socio-political realities of 1970s India, channeling the growing popular discontent and disillusionment among the masses, and the failure of the state in ensuring their welfare and well-being, in a time when prices were rapidly rising, commodities were becoming scarce, public institutions were losing legitimacy, smugglers and gangsters were gathering political clout, and there was an unprecedented growth of.
The cinema of Salim-Javed and Amitabh Bachchan dealt with themes relevant to Indian society at the time, such as urban poverty in slums, corruption in society, and the crime scene, and was perceived by audiences as, often represented by an 'angry young man' protagonist, presented as a or, with his suppressed rage giving a voice to the angst of the urban poor. Overseas Overseas, Bollywood has been a prominent form of for India, increasing India's influence overseas, as well as changing overseas perceptions of India. In countries such as, for example, included bullock carts, beggars, sacred cows, corrupt politicians, and catastrophes, before Bollywood as well as the transformed global perceptions of India.
According to author Roopa Swaminathan, 'Bollywood cinema is one of the strongest global cultural ambassadors of a new India.' The role of Bollywood in exerting India's global influence is comparable to the role of Hollywood in exerting America's global influence. See below for further information on Bollywood's influence in different global regions. Bollywood has also influenced and other film industries. In the 2000s, Bollywood began influencing in the Western world, and played a particularly instrumental role in the revival of the American musical film genre. Stated that his musical film (2001) was directly inspired by Bollywood musicals. The film incorporated an Indian-themed play based on the ancient and a Bollywood-style dance sequence with a song from the film (1998).
The critical and financial success of Moulin Rouge! Renewed interest in the then-moribund Western musical genre, and subsequently films such as,,,,,,,, and were produced, fuelling a renaissance of the genre., an Indian film composer, wrote the music for 's, and a musical version of has played in London's West End. The Bollywood (2001) was nominated for the, and two other Bollywood films (2002) and (2006) were nominated for the. 's (2008), which won four and, was directly inspired by Bollywood films, and is considered to be a 'homage to Hindi commercial cinema', inspired by such as (1975), (1998), (2002) and (2007). Deewaar also had a remake, (1979), which went on to inspire 's internationally acclaimed breakthrough (1986), which set the template for the genre in. 1970s 'angry young man' epics such as Deewaar and (1977) have similarities to the heroic bloodshed genre of 1980s Hong Kong action cinema. The theme of was popularised in through Bollywood films, with (1958) inspiring the Hollywood film (1975), which in turn inspired the Bollywood film (1980), which in turn influenced another Hollywood film (1989).
The 1975 film is believed to have inspired (2005), which in turn inspired the Bollywood film (2007). The influence of can also be seen in elsewhere in the world. In 1978, pioneers and of the produced an album Cochin Moon based on an between electronic music and Bollywood-inspired Indian music. 's 1988 hit song 'Disco Dancer' was inspired by the song 'I am a Disco Dancer' from the Bollywood film (1982).
The 2002 song ', sung by and produced by and, was lifted from 's 'Thoda Resham Lagta Hai' from Jyoti (1981). ' winning 2005 song ' was inspired by two 1970s: 'Ye Mera Dil Yaar Ka Diwana' from (1978) and 'Ae Nujawan Hai Sub' from (1972). Both songs were originally composed by, sung by, and featured the dancer. In 2005, the re-recorded several compositions, with as the singer, into an album, which was nominated for 'Best Contemporary World Music Album' at the 2006 Grammy Awards. Filmi music composed by (who would later win two for the ) has frequently been sampled by musicians elsewhere in the world, including the Singaporean artist, the Iroda Dilroz, the French rap group, the American artist, and the German band, among others. Many artists, particularly those among the, have also been inspired by Bollywood music. Genre conventions.
Melodrama and romance are common ingredients to Bollywood films. Pictured (1936) Bollywood films are mostly and are expected to contain catchy music in the form of song-and-dance numbers woven into the script.
A film's success often depends on the quality of such musical numbers. Indeed, a film's music is often released before the movie and helps increase the audience. Indian audiences expect full value for their money, with a good entertainer generally referred to as vasool, (literally, 'money's worth'). Songs and dances, love triangles, comedy and dare-devil thrills are all mixed up in a three-hour extravaganza with an intermission. They are called, after the Hindi word for a spice mixture.
Like masalas, these movies are a mixture of many things such as action, comedy, romance and so on. Most films have heroes who are able to fight off villains all by themselves. Bollywood plots have tended to be. They frequently employ formulaic ingredients such as star-crossed lovers and angry parents, love triangles, family ties, sacrifice, corrupt politicians, kidnappers, conniving villains,, long-lost relatives and siblings separated by fate, dramatic reversals of fortune, and convenient coincidences. There have always been Indian films with more artistic aims and more sophisticated stories, both inside and outside the Bollywood tradition (see ). They often lost out at the box office to movies with more mass appeal. Bollywood conventions are changing, however.
A large Indian diaspora in English-speaking countries, and increased influence at home, have nudged Bollywood films closer to Hollywood models. Film critic Lata Khubchandani writes, 'our earliest films. Had liberal doses of sex and kissing scenes in them. Strangely, it was after Independence the censor board came into being and so did all the strictures.'
Plots now tend to feature Westernised urbanites dating and dancing in clubs rather than centring on pre-arranged marriages. Though these changes can widely be seen in contemporary Bollywood, traditional conservative ways of Indian culture continue to exist in outside the industry and an element of resistance by some to western-based influences. Despite this, Bollywood continues to play a major role in. Download Nero 11 Full Crack MFL there. Some studies into fashion in have revealed that some people are unaware that the changing nature of fashion in Bollywood films are often influenced by globalisation; many consider the clothes worn by Bollywood actors as authentically Indian. Cast and crew. See also:,,,,,, and Bollywood employs people from all parts of. It attracts thousands of aspiring actors and actresses, all hoping for a break in the industry.
Models and beauty contestants, television actors, theatre actors and even common people come to Mumbai with the hope and dream of becoming a star. Just as in, very few succeed. Since many Bollywood films are shot abroad, many foreign extras are employed too.
Very few non-Indian actors are able to make a mark in Bollywood, though many have tried from time to time. There have been some exceptions, of which one recent example is the hit film, where the lead actress is, an Englishwoman.,, and also featured foreign actors.
Of late,, an Australian born actress, has starred in a few Indian films. Bollywood can be very clannish, and the relatives of film-industry insiders have an edge in getting coveted roles in films or being part of a film's crew. However, industry connections are no guarantee of a long career: competition is fierce and if film industry scions do not succeed at the box office, their careers will falter. Some of the biggest stars, such as,,,,, and have succeeded despite a lack of any show business connections. For film clans, see. Dialogues and lyrics.
See also:,,,, and The film script or lines of dialogue (called 'dialogues' in ) and the song lyrics are often written by different people. Dialogues are usually written in an unadorned, collectively known as, that would be understood by the largest possible audience. Bollywood films tend to use a dialect of Hindi-Urdu, mutually intelligible to both and speakers. While formally referred to as Hindi cinema, most of its classic scriptwriters actually wrote their scripts and dialogues mainly in Urdu, including the likes of,,,, and. Salim-Javed, for example, wrote in, with the Urdu dialogues then transcribed by an assistant into script so that Hindi readers could read the Urdu dialogues. In the 1970s, the Urdu writers and screenwriters and noted that 'more than seventy-five per cent of films are made in Urdu' but were categorized as Hindi films by the government. Has had a particularly strong impact on, where the lyrics draw heavily from Urdu poetry and the tradition.
Some movies have used to evoke a village setting, or old-fashioned, courtly, formal Urdu in. Jyotika Virdi, in her book The cinematic imagiNation [ ], wrote about the presence of Urdu in Hindi films: 'Urdu is often used in film titles, screenplay, lyrics, the language of love, war, and martyrdom.' She notes that Urdu was widely used in classic Hindi cinema, due to formal Urdu being widely taught in pre- India and still being used in Hindi cinema decades after partition, but there has since been a decline of formal Urdu in modern Hindi cinema: 'The extent of Urdu used in commercial Hindi cinema has not been stable. The decline of Urdu is mirrored in Hindi films.
It is true that many Urdu words have survived and have become part of Hindi cinema's popular vocabulary. But that is as far as it goes. For the most part popular Hindi cinema has forsaken the florid Urdu that was part of its extravagance and retained a 'residual' Urdu'. The notes that Bollywood films continue to use a colloquial Hindi-Urdu dialect that is mutually intelligible to both Hindi and Urdu speakers. Urdu continues to be extensively used in Bollywood films, in dialogues and particularly songs. Contemporary mainstream movies also make great use of English ().
According to Bollywood Audiences Editorial, 'English has begun to challenge the ideological work done by Urdu.' Some movie scripts are first written in. Characters may shift from one language to the other to express a certain atmosphere (for example, English in a business setting and Hindi in an informal one). The blend of Hindi, Urdu and English occasionally seen in modern Bollywood films is often referred to as, which has become increasingly prevalent in modern Bollywood films.
Cinematic language, whether in dialogues or lyrics, is often melodramatic and invokes God, family, mother, duty, and self-sacrifice liberally. Song lyrics are often about love. Bollywood song lyrics, especially in the old movies, frequently use the poetic vocabulary of court Urdu, with many loanwords. Another source for love lyrics is the long tradition of poetry about the amours of,, and the, as referenced in films such as and. Music directors often prefer working with certain lyricists, to the point that the lyricist and composer are seen as a team.
This phenomenon is compared to the pairings of American composers and songwriters that created old-time Broadway musicals. Sound Sound in Bollywood films was once rarely recorded on location (otherwise known as sync sound). Therefore, the sound was usually created (or re-created) entirely in the studio, with the actors reciting their lines as their images appear on-screen in the studio in the process known as 'looping in the sound' or —with the and sound effects added later. This created several problems, since the sound in these films usually occurs a frame or two earlier or later than the mouth movements or gestures. The actors had to act twice: once on-location, once in the studio—and the emotional level on set is often very difficult to re-create.
Commercial Indian films, not just the Hindi-language variety, are known for their lack of ambient sound, so there is a silence underlying everything instead of the background sound and noises usually employed in films to create aurally perceivable depth and environment. The ubiquity of ADR in Bollywood cinema became prevalent in the early 1960s with the arrival of the camera, which required a blimp (cover) to shield the sound of the camera, for which it was notorious, from on-location filming. Commercial Indian filmmakers, known for their speed, never bothered to blimp the camera, and its excessive noise required that everything had to be re-created in the studio. Eventually, this became the standard for Indian films. The trend was bucked in 2001, after a 30-year hiatus of synchronised sound, with the film, in which the sound was done on the location. This opened up a heated debate on the use and economic feasibility of on-location sound, and several Bollywood films have employed on-location sound since then.
Makeup In 1955 the Bollywood group Cine Costume Make-Up Artist & Hair Dressers' Association (CCMAA) created a rule that did not allow women to obtain memberships as makeup artists. However, in 2014 the ruled that this rule was in violation of the Indian constitutional guarantees granted under Article 14 (right to equality), 19(1)(g) (freedom to carry out any profession) and Article 21 (right to liberty). The judges of the Supreme Court of India stated that the ban on women makeup artist members had no 'rationale nexus' to the cause sought to be achieved and was 'unacceptable, impermissible and inconsistent' with the constitutional rights guaranteed to the citizens. The Court also found illegal the rule which mandated that for any artist, female or male, to work in the industry, they must have domicile status of five years in the state where they intend to work. In 2015 it was announced that Charu Khurana had become the first woman to be registered by the Cine Costume Make-Up Artist & Hair Dressers' Association.
Bollywood song and dance. Further information:,,,, and Bollywood film music is called music (from Hindi, meaning 'of films'). Songs from Bollywood movies are generally pre-recorded by professional playback singers, with the actors then the words to the song on-screen, often while dancing. While most actors, especially today, are excellent dancers, few are also singers. One notable exception was, who starred in several major films in the 1950s while also having a stellar career as a playback singer., Suraiyya, and were also known as both singers and actors. Some actors in the last thirty years have sung one or more songs themselves; for a list, see. Songs are what make and break the movie; they determine if it is going to be a flop or a hit: 'Few films without successful musical tracks, and even fewer without any songs and dances, succeed' With the increase of globalization, there has also been a change in the type of music that Bollywood films entail; the lyrics of the songs have increasingly been a mix of Hindi and English languages, as opposed to the strict Hindi prior to Globalization.
Also, with the inspiration of global trends, such as Salsa, Pop and Hip Hop, there has been a modification of the type of music heard in Bollywood films. Playback singers are prominently featured in the opening credits and have their own who will go to an otherwise lackluster movie just to hear their favourites. Going by the quality as well as the quantity of the songs they rendered, most notable singers of Bollywood are,,,,, and among female playback singers; and K. Saigal, Talat Mahmood,,,,,,, and among male playback singers. Kishore Kumar and Mohammed Rafi are often considered arguably the finest of the singers that have lent their voice to Bollywood songs, followed by Lata Mangeshkar, who, through the course of a career spanning over six decades, has recorded thousands of songs for Indian movies. The composers of film music, known as music directors, are also well-known.
Their songs can make or break a film and usually do. Of film songs with modern beats and rhythms is a common occurrence today, and producers may even release remixed versions of some of their films' songs along with the films' regular soundtrack albums. The dancing in Bollywood films, especially older ones, is primarily modelled on Indian dance: classical dance styles, dances of historic northern Indian courtesans (),. In modern films, Indian dance elements often blend with Western dance styles (as seen on MTV or in Broadway musicals), though it is usual to see Western pop and pure classical dance numbers side by side in the same film.
The hero or heroine will often perform with a troupe of supporting dancers. Many song-and-dance routines in Indian films feature unrealistically instantaneous shifts of location or changes of costume between verses of a song. If the hero and heroine dance and sing a duet, it is often staged in beautiful natural surroundings or architecturally grand settings.
This staging is referred to as a 'picturisation'. Songs typically comment on the action taking place in the movie, in several ways. Sometimes, a song is worked into the plot, so that a character has a reason to sing. Other times, a song is an externalisation of a character's thoughts, or presages an event that has not occurred yet in the plot of the movie.
In this case, the event is often two characters falling in love. The songs are also often referred to as a 'dream sequence', and anything can happen that would not normally happen in the real world. Previously song and dance scenes often used to be shot in, but due to political unrest in Kashmir since the end of the 1980s, those scenes have since then often been shot in Western Europe, particularly in and. Renowned contemporary Bollywood dancers include,,,,,, and. Older Bollywood dancers are people such as, known for her cabaret numbers,,,,,,,,, and. For the last few decades Bollywood producers have been releasing the film's soundtrack, as tapes or CDs, before the main movie release, hoping that the music will pull audiences into the cinema later. Often the soundtrack is more popular than the movie.
In the last few years some producers have also been releasing music videos, usually featuring a song from the film. However, some promotional videos feature a song which is not included in the movie. Finances Bollywood films are multi-million dollar productions, with the most expensive productions costing up to 1 billion (roughly USD 20 million). The latest Science fiction movie was made at an immense budget of 1.35 billion (roughly USD 27 million), making it the most expensive movie ever produced in Bollywood., costumes, special effects, and were less than world-class up until the mid-to-late 1990s, although with some notable exceptions. As Western films and television gain wider distribution in India itself, there is an increasing pressure for Bollywood films to attain the same production levels, particularly in areas such as action and special effects.
Recent Bollywood films have employed international technicians to improve in these areas, such as (2006) which has action choreographed by Hong Kong based. The increasing accessibility to professional action and special effects, coupled with rising film budgets, has seen an explosion in the action and sci-fi genres. Sequences shot overseas have proved a real box office draw, so Mumbai film crews are increasingly filming in Australia, Canada,, the United Kingdom, the United States, and elsewhere. Nowadays, Indian producers are winning more and more funding for big-budget films shot within India as well, such as, and other recent films. Funding for Bollywood films often comes from private distributors and a few large.
Indian banks and financial institutions were forbidden from lending money to movie studios. However, this ban has now been lifted. As finances are not regulated, some funding also comes from illegitimate sources, such as the. The Mumbai underworld has been known to be involved in the production of several films, and are notorious for patronising several prominent film personalities. On occasion, they have been known to use money and muscle power to get their way in cinematic deals.
In January 2000, Mumbai mafia hitmen shot, a film director and father of star. In 2001, the seized all prints of the movie after the movie was found to be funded by members of the. Another problem facing Bollywood is widespread of its films. Often, bootleg copies of movies are available before the prints are officially released in cinemas. Manufacturing of bootleg DVD, VCD, and VHS copies of the latest movie titles is a well established 'small scale industry' in parts of South Asia and.
The Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industry (FICCI) estimates that the Bollywood industry loses $100 million annually in loss of revenue from unlicensed home videos and DVDs. Besides catering to the homegrown market, demand for these copies is large amongst some sections of the, too. (In fact, bootleg copies are the only way people in Pakistan can watch Bollywood movies, since the Government of Pakistan has banned their sale, distribution and telecast).
Films are frequently broadcast without compensation by countless small cable TV companies in India and other parts of South Asia. Small convenience stores run by members of the Indian diaspora in the US and the UK regularly stock tapes and DVDs of dubious provenance, while consumer copying adds to the problem. The availability of illegal copies of movies on the Internet also contributes to the industry's losses. Satellite TV, television and imported foreign films are making huge inroads into the domestic Indian entertainment market. In the past, most Bollywood films could make money; now fewer tend to do so. However, most Bollywood producers make money, recouping their investments from many sources of revenue, including selling ancillary rights.
There are also increasing returns from theatres in Western countries like the United Kingdom, Canada, and the United States, where Bollywood is slowly getting noticed. As more Indians migrate to these countries, they form a growing market for upscale Indian films. For a comparison of Hollywood and Bollywood financial figures, see chart. It shows tickets sold in 2002 and total revenue estimates.
Bollywood sold 3.6 billion tickets and had total revenues (theatre tickets, DVDs, television and so on.) of US$1.3 billion, whereas Hollywood films sold 2.6 billion tickets and generated total revenues (again from all formats) of US$51 billion. Advertising Many Indian artists used to make a living by hand-painting movie billboards and posters (The well-known artist used to paint film posters early in his career). This was because human labour was found to be cheaper than printing and distributing publicity material. Now, a majority of the huge and ubiquitous billboards in India's major cities are created with computer-printed vinyl. The old hand-painted posters, once regarded as ephemera, are becoming increasingly collectible as. Releasing the film music, or music videos, before the actual release of the film can also be considered a form of advertising. A popular tune is believed to help pull audiences into the theatres.
Bollywood publicists have begun to use the Internet as a venue for advertising. Most of the better-funded film releases now have their own websites, where browsers can view trailers, stills, and information about the story, cast, and crew. Bollywood is also used to advertise other products., as used in Hollywood, is widely practised in Bollywood.
Bollywood movie stars appear in print and television advertisements for other products, such as watches or soap (see ). Advertisers say that a star endorsement boosts sales.
International shoots With the increasing prominence of international setting such as Switzerland, London, Paris, New York, Singapore and so on, it does not entail that the people and cultures residing in these exotic settings are represented. Contrary to these spaces and geographies being filmed as they are, they are actually Indianized by adding Bollywood actors and Hindi speaking extras to them. While immersing in Bollywood films, viewers get to see their local experiences duplicated in different locations around the world. Rao states that 'Media representation can depict India's shifting relation with the world economy, but must retain its 'Indianness' in moments of dynamic hybridity', where 'Indianness' refers to the cultural identity and political affiliation. With Bollywood's popularity among diasporic audiences, 'Indianness' poses a problem, but at the same time, it gives back to its homeland audience, a sense of uniqueness from other immigrant groups.
Awards The ceremony is one of the most prominent film events given for Hindi films in India. The Indian screen magazine started the first Filmfare Awards in 1954, and awards were given to the best films of 1953. The ceremony was referred to as the Clare Awards after the magazine's editor. Modelled after the poll-based merit format of the, individuals may submit their votes in separate categories.
A dual voting system was developed in 1956. The Filmfare awards are frequently accused of bias towards commercial success rather than artistic merit. The were introduced in 1954.
Since 1973, the Indian government has sponsored the National Film Awards, awarded by the government run (DFF). The DFF screens not only Bollywood films, but films from all the other regional movie industries and independent/art films. These awards are handed out at an annual ceremony presided over by the President of India.
Under this system, in contrast to the National Film Awards, which are decided by a panel appointed by Indian Government, the Filmfare Awards are voted for by both the public and a committee of experts. Notable private awards ceremonies for Hindi films, held within India are: • – since 1954 • – since 1995 • – since 2003 Notable private awards ceremonies for Hindi films, held overseas are: • – (different country each year) – since 2000 • - (different country each year) – since 1998 Most of these award ceremonies are lavishly staged spectacles, featuring singing, dancing, and numerous celebrities. Film education • • • • Global markets. See also: and Besides being popular among the, in far off locations, from and to and, generations of non-Indian fans have grown up with Bollywood over the decades, bearing witness to the cross-cultural appeal of Indian films.
Indian cinema's early contacts with other regions became visible with its films making early inroads into the,,, and. Over the last years of the 20th century and beyond, Bollywood progressed in its popularity as it entered the consciousness of Western audiences and producers, with Western actors now actively seeking roles in Bollywood movies. Asia-Pacific South Asia Bollywood films are widely watched in other countries, including,,, and. In these countries, is widely understood. Many Pakistanis watch Bollywood films, as they understand Hindi (due to its linguistic similarity to ). Pakistan banned the legal import of Bollywood movies in 1965. However, trade in unlicensed DVDs and illegal cable broadcasts ensured the continued popularity of Bollywood releases in Pakistan.
Exceptions were made for a few films, such as the 2006 colorised re-release of the classic or the 2006 film. Early in 2008, the Pakistani government eased the ban and allowed the import of even more movies; 16 were screened in 2008. Continued easing followed in 2009 and 2010. The new policy is opposed by nationalists and representatives of Pakistan's small film industry but is embraced by cinema owners, who are making profits after years of low receipts.
The most popular male actors there are the three:,, and. The most popular female actress there was; at in the 1990s, many Pakistani fans frequently chanted the slogan, ' Madhuri dedo, Kashmir lelo!' ('Give Madhuri, take!' Bollywood films are very popular in Nepal, to the extent that Bollywood films earn more than there. Actors such as Salman Khan, and Shah Rukh Khan are most popular in Nepal, with their films having audiences fully pack cinema halls across the country. Bollywood films also very popular in, due to the country's proximity to the Indian subcontinent and cultural similarities present in the films.
For example, India seems to share a similar style of music and musical instruments with Afghanistan. Some of the popular stars there include Shah Rukh Khan,,,,, and Madhuri Dixit. A number of Bollywood films were filmed inside Afghanistan, while some dealt with the country, including,, and.
Southeast Asia and East Asia Bollywood films are popular in, particularly in. The three (,, and ) are very popular in the, including,, and. Bollywood is also fairly popular in. In, some Bollywood films are widely appreciated in countries such as,, and.
In Japan, several Hindi films have a cult following there, such as the films directed. Several Hindi films have also had mainstream commercial success in Japan, including 's (1952) starring, and 's (1992) starring Shah Rukh Khan, which released there in 1997 and sparked a short-lived boom in Indian films released in Japan for the next two years. Another Shah Rukh Khan starrer, (1998), was also a hit in Japan. The highest-grossing Hindi film in Japan is the Aamir Khan starrer (2009), which also received a nomination.
3 Idiots was also a critical and commercial success in South Korea. Some Hindi movies had success in China back in the 1940s and 1950s, and are still popular among older generations of Chinese in the present. Some of the popular Hindi films in the region included (1946), (1951) and (1953). Was a famous movie star in China, with the song ' ('I am a Tramp') popular in the country. In China, the few Indian films to gain commercial success there during the 1970s–1980s included Awaara, 's (1971), (1979), and (1982).
Since then, Hindi films significantly declined in popularity in China. After Indian films declined in the country, it took decades before Tahir Hussain's son Aamir Khan opened up the Chinese market for Indian films in the early 21st century.
His nominated (2001) became the first Indian film to have a nationwide release there. The filmmaker was impressed by Lagaan, especially its soundtrack, and thus hired the film's music composer to score the soundtrack for his film (2003). When 3 Idiots released in China, the country was only the 15th largest film market, partly due to China's widespread pirate distribution at the time. However, it was the pirate market that introduced 3 Idiots to most Chinese audiences, becoming a in the country.
It became China's 12th favourite film of all time, according to ratings on Chinese film review site, with only one domestic Chinese film ( ) ranked higher. Aamir Khan gained a large growing Chinese fanbase as a result. After 3 Idiots went viral, several of his other films, such as (2007) and (2008), also gained a cult following. By 2013, China grew to become the world's second largest film market (after the United States), paving the way for Aamir Khan's Chinese box office success, with (2013), (2014), and (2016), which became the and the fifth highest-grossing non- film worldwide. Dangal has also been watched about 320 million times on Chinese streaming platforms.
Several Aamir Khan films, including Taare Zameen Par, 3 Idiots, and Dangal, are some of the highest-rated films on popular Chinese film site. Oceania Bollywood is not as successful in the countries and Pacific Islands such as. However, it ranks second to in countries such as, with its large Indian minority, as well as and.
Australia is one of the countries where there is a large South Asian Diaspora. Bollywood is popular amongst non-Asians in the country as well. Since 1997 the country has provided a backdrop for an increasing number of Bollywood films. Indian filmmakers have been attracted to Australia's diverse locations and landscapes, and initially used it as the setting for song-and-dance sequences, which demonstrated the contrast between the values.
However, nowadays, Australian locations are becoming more important to the plot of Bollywood films. Hindi films shot in Australia usually incorporate aspects of Australian lifestyle.
The (2005) became the first Indian film to be shot entirely in Australia and was the most successful Bollywood film of 2005 in the country. This was followed by (2007) (2007) and (2008) which turned out to be box office successes. Following the release of Salaam Namaste, on a visit to India the then prime minister also sought, having seen the film, to have more Indian movies shooting in the country to boost tourism, where the Bollywood and cricket nexus, was further tightened with 's appointment as tourism ambassador to India. Australian actress, who co-starred in Salaam Namaste, among other Bollywood films, expressed her keenness to expand her career in Bollywood.
Eastern Europe and Central Asia Bollywood films are particularly popular in the former (,, ). Bollywood films have been into, and shown in prominent theatres such as and.
Indian films were, more so than and occasionally even domestic. The first Indian film to release there was (1946), directed by and based on the, released in the Soviet Union in 1949. Since then, 300 Indian films were released in the Soviet Union, most of which were Bollywood films, drawing higher average audience figures than domestic Soviet productions, with 50 Indian films drawing more than 20 million viewers (compared to 41 Hollywood films), with some such as (1951) and (1982) drawing more than 60 million viewers, establishing Indian actors like,, and as household names in the country. Ashok Sharma, Indian Ambassador to, who has served three times in the region during his diplomatic career said: The popularity of Bollywood in the CIS dates back to the Soviet days when the films from and other Western cinema centers were banned in the Soviet Union.
As there was no means of other cheap entertainment, the films from Bollywood provided the Soviets a cheap source of entertainment as they were supposed to be non-controversial and non-political. In addition, the Soviet Union was recovering from the onslaught of the Second World War. The films from India, which were also recovering from the disaster of partition and the struggle for freedom from colonial rule, were found to be a good source of providing hope with entertainment to the struggling masses.
The aspirations and needs of the people of both countries matched to a great extent. These films were dubbed in Russian and shown in theatres throughout the Soviet Union. The films from Bollywood also strengthened family values, which was a big factor for their popularity with the government authorities in the Soviet Union. The film (1970), sought to cater to such an appeal and the popularity of in Russia, when it recruited Russian actress for the movie. In the contemporary era, (2005) was shot entirely in Russia.
After the collapse of the Soviet film distribution system, Hollywood occupied the void created in the Russian film market. This made things difficult for Bollywood as it was losing market share to Hollywood.
However, Russian newspapers report that there is a renewed interest in Bollywood among young Russians. Middle East and North Africa Hindi films have been popular in, including,,, and the. Imported Indian films are usually subtitled in Arabic upon the film's release. Since the early 2000s, Bollywood has progressed in. Special channels dedicated to Indian films have been displayed on cable television. There are channels such as and, which show Hindi movies and serials. In Egypt, Bollywood films used to be very popular in the 1970s and 1980s.
In 1987 however, Bollywood films were restricted to only a handful of films by the., however, has remained been very popular in Egypt. Indian tourists visiting Egypt are frequently asked by locals, 'Do you know Amitabh Bachchan?' Bollywood movies are regularly screened in Dubai cinemas because of the high demand. Recently in Turkey, Bollywood has been gaining popularity as was the first Hindi film to have a wide theatrical release.
Bollywood also has viewership in Central Asia (particularly in and ). South America Bollywood movies are not influential in many countries of South America, though Bollywood culture and dance is recognised. However, due to significant South Asian diasporic communities in and, Hindi-language movies are popular. In 2006, became the first Bollywood film to be shot in, Brazil. In January 2012, it was announced that UTV Motion Pictures would be releasing movies in, starting with. Sub-Saharan Africa and Horn of Africa Historically, Hindi films have been distributed to some parts of Africa, largely by Lebanese businessmen. (1957), for example, continued to be played in decades after its release.
Indian movies have also gained ground so as to alter the style of fashions, songs have also been copied by Hausa singers and stories have influenced the writings of Nigerian novelists. Stickers of Indian films and stars decorate taxis and buses in Northern Nigeria, while posters of Indian films adorn the walls of tailor shops and mechanics' garages in the country. Unlike in Europe and North America where Indian films largely cater to the expatriate Indian market yearning to keep in touch with their homeland, in West Africa, as in many other parts of the world, such movies rose in popularity despite the lack of a significant Indian audience, where movies are about an alien culture, based on a religion wholly different, and, for the most part, a language that is unintelligible to the viewers. One such explanation for this lies in the similarities between the two cultures.
Other similarities include wearing turbans; the presence of animals in markets; porters carrying large bundles, chewing sugar cane; youths riding motor scooters; wedding celebrations, and so forth. With the strict Muslim culture, Indian movies were said to show 'respect' toward women, where were seen to have 'no shame'.
In Indian movies women were modestly dressed, men and women rarely kiss, and there is no, thus Indian movies are said to 'have culture' that Hollywood films lack. The latter choice was a failure because 'they don't base themselves on the problems of the people,' where the former is based socialist values and on the reality of developing countries emerging from years of colonialism. Indian movies also allowed for a new youth culture to follow without such ideological baggage as 'becoming western.' The first ever movie to be shot in Mauritius was starring in 1983.
In, film imports from India were watched by both and audiences. Several Bollywood personalities have avenued to the continent for both shooting movies and off-camera projects. The film (2005) was one of many movies shot in South Africa.
(2005) was shot almost entirely in, which has a large ethnically Indian population. Ominously, however, the popularity of old Bollywood versus a new, changing Bollywood seems to be diminishing the popularity on the continent.
The changing style of Bollywood has begun to question such an acceptance. The new era features more sexually explicit and violent films.
Nigerian viewers, for example, commented that older films of the 1950s and 1960s had culture to the newer, more westernised picturisations. The old days of India avidly 'advocating decolonization. And India's policy was wholly influenced by his missionary zeal to end racial domination and discrimination in the African territories' were replaced by newer realities. The emergence of, Africa's local movie industry has also contributed to the declining popularity of Bollywood films. A greater world worked in tandem with the sexualisation of Indian films so as to become more like American films, thus negating the preferred values of an old Bollywood and diminishing Indian. Additionally, classic Bollywood actors like and have historically enjoyed popularity in and.
In, Bollywood movies are shown alongside Hollywood productions in theatres, such as the Cinema Ethiopia in. In the other countries of, Bollywood films are also broadcast, though local aesthetics tend much more toward expressive or than commercial fare. Western Europe and North America. 'Bollywood Steps' show in. The first Indian film to be released in the, and get mainstream attention, was (1952), directed by, and starring and. It was subtitled in 17 languages and released in 28 countries, including the,, and.
Aan also received critical acclaim in the British press at the time, such as which compared it favourably with Hollywood productions at the time. Mehboob Khan's later nominated (1957) was an unprecedented success in overseas markets, including,, the,, and.
The awareness of Hindi cinema is substantial in the United Kingdom, where they frequently enter the UK top ten. The most successful Indian actor at the UK box office has been, whose popularity in communities played a key role in introducing Bollywood to the UK, with films such as (1993), (1995), and (1998). (1998) was the first Indian film to enter the UK top ten.
Many Indian films, such as Dilwale Dulhaniya Le Jayenge and (2001), have been set in London. Bollywood is also appreciated in other countries, such as,, the, and the countries. Various Bollywood films are dubbed in, and shown on the German television channel on a regular basis. Shah Rukh Khan has a large fan following in Germany, particularly in cities such as, where the tabloid compared his popularity to that of the. Joining students for a 'Bollywood Dance Clinic' in the State Dining Room of the, 2013.
Bollywood has experienced a marked growth in revenue in and the United States, particularly popular amongst the in large cities, such as, Chicago, and New York City., one of India's largest production houses and distributors, reported in September 2005 that Bollywood films in the United States earn around $100 million a year through theatre screenings, video sales and the sale of movie soundtracks. In other words, films from India do more business in the United States than films from any other non-English speaking country.
Numerous films in the mid-1990s and onwards have been largely, or entirely, shot in New York, Los Angeles, Vancouver and Toronto. Bollywood's immersion in the traditional Hollywood domain was further tied with such films as (2002) and (2007) trying to popularise the Bollywood-theme for Hollywood. Plagiarism Constrained by rushed production schedules and small budgets, some Bollywood writers and musicians have been known to resort to. Ideas, plot lines, tunes or riffs have been copied from other Indian film industries or foreign films (including and other ) without acknowledgement of the original source. This has led to criticism towards the film industry. Before the 1990s, this could be done with impunity. Enforcement was lax in India and few actors or directors ever saw an official contract.
The Hindi film industry was not widely known to non-Indian audiences (excluding the Soviet states), who would not even be aware that their material was being copied. Audiences may also not have been aware of the plagiarism since many audiences in India were unfamiliar with foreign films and music. While copyright enforcement in India is still somewhat lenient, Bollywood and other film industries are much more aware of each other now and Indian audiences are more familiar with foreign movies and music.
Organisations like the India EU Film Initiative seek to foster a community between film makers and industry professional between India and the EU. One of the common justifications of plagiarism in Bollywood in the media is that producers often play a safer option by remaking popular Hollywood films in an Indian context. Screenwriters generally produce original scripts, but due to financial uncertainty and insecurity over the success of a film many were rejected. Screenwriters themselves have been criticised for lack of creativity which happened due to tight schedules and restricted funds in the industry to employ better screenwriters. Certain filmmakers see plagiarism in Bollywood as an integral part of globalisation where American and western cultures are firmly embedding themselves into Indian culture, which is manifested, amongst other mediums, in Bollywood films., director of films such as which stars, a remake of, and, a remake of, has spoken about the strong influence of American culture and desire to produce box office hits based along the same lines in Bollywood.
He said, 'Financially, I would be more secure knowing that a particular piece of work has already done well at the box office. Copying is endemic everywhere in India. Our TV shows are adaptations of American programmes. We want their films, their cars, their planes, their and also their attitude. The American way of life is creeping into our culture.' Has said, 'If you hide the source, you're a genius. There's no such thing as originality in the creative sphere'.
There have been very few cases of film copyright violations taken to court because of serious delays in the legal process, and due to the long time they take to decide a case. There have been some notable cases of conflict though. The makers of (2007) and (2005) have been targeted by the owners and distributors of the original films, and. American Studio brought the Mumbai-based B.R. Films to court over its forthcoming Banda Yeh Bindaas Hai, allegedly an illegal remake of its 1992 film. Films eventually settled out of court by paying the studio at a cost of about $200,000, paving the way for the film's release. Some on the other hand do comply with copyright law, with Orion Pictures in 2008 securing the rights to remake the Hollywood film.
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