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Production output 3,400 (annually) Services Restoration of Steinway pianos Website • • Steinway & Sons, also known as Steinway, ( ( )) is an American-German company, founded in 1853 in,, by German immigrant (later known as Henry E. The company's growth led to the opening of a factory in, New York City, and a factory in, Germany. The factory in Queens supplies the and the factory in Hamburg supplies the rest of the world. Steinway has been described as a prominent piano company, known for making pianos of high quality and for inventions within the area of piano development. Steinway has been granted 126 in piano making; the first in 1857. The company's share of the high-end grand piano market consistently exceeds 80 percent. The company's dominant position in the high-end piano market has been criticized, with some musicians and writers arguing that it has blocked innovation and led to a homogenization of the sound favored by pianists.

Steinway pianos have received numerous awards. One of the first is a gold medal in 1855 at the at the. From 1855 to 1862, Steinway pianos received 35 gold medals. More awards and recognitions followed, including three medals at the in Paris. The part of the company holds a to.

Steinway pianos are made at the factories in Hamburg and Queens. In addition to the flagship Steinway piano line, Steinway markets two other, lower priced brands of piano sold under the secondary brand names Boston and Essex. The Boston brand is for the mid-level market and the Essex brand is for the entry-level market. Boston and Essex pianos are designed by Steinway engineers and produced in at other piano makers' factories under the supervision of Steinway employees to utilize a lower cost of parts, production, and labor. Steinway's factory in Manhattan, New York City, 1876 Around 1870–80, (born Wilhelm Steinweg, a son of Heinrich Engelhard Steinweg) established a professional community, the Steinway Village, in what is now the in New York City. Steinway Village was built as its own town, and included a new factory (still used today) with its own foundry and sawmill, houses for employees, kindergarten, lending library, post office, volunteer fire department, and parks.

Steinway Village later became part of., one of the major streets in the Astoria and Long Island City neighborhoods of Queens, is named after the company. In 1876, Steinway participated in the in Philadelphia. The competition was principally between Steinway,, and. According to journalist 's account of Steinway's participation in the competition, the company was able to secure success by bribing one of the judges. William Steinway denied to the exposition's organizers that a judge had been paid directly, although Barron states that the judge was bribed through an intermediary: the pianist Frederic Boscovitz.

According to freelancer Isabel Wolff, William Steinway would admit in his diary that under his leadership the New York City arm of the company bribed judges at trade fairs to favor Steinway pianos. According to musicologist Donald W. Fostle, it is untrue that Steinway repeatedly bribed judges at trade fairs, and in the one documented case it is unclear if Steinway were enmeshed, along with others, in bribery or were the target of attempted extortion.

Crowd of spectators buying tickets for a reading at the in New York City, 1867 From 1864 to 1866,, who is credited with establishing Steinway's success in marketing, oversaw the construction of on East in Manhattan, New York City. Steinway Hall had cost $200,000 to build. It included the second largest concert hall in New York City as well as showrooms for Steinway pianos. To enter the concert hall concertgoers had to pass through the showrooms, a way to advertise Steinway pianos. Sales increased by more than 400 pianos in 1867.

Steinway Hall quickly became one of New York City's most prominent cultural centers, housing the for the next 25 years until opened in 1891. In 1925, the Steinway Hall on East 14th Street was closed and a new Steinway Hall on West was opened. In 2013, Steinway sold the Steinway Hall on West 57th Street for $46 million and moved out of the building at the end of 2014.

In 2016, a new Steinway Hall opened on. A second Steinway Hall was opened in London in 1875. It was located first on, in 1924 it moved to St. George Street, and later it moved to its current address on Lane. Expansion [ ]. Playing ', excerpt of 3rd movement.

Recording 5973-4 played on a Steinway grand piano model XR 6'2' Duo-Art from 1920. Later, Steinway diversified into the manufacture of. Several systems such as the,, and were incorporated.

During the 1920s, Steinway had been selling up to 6,000 pianos a year. In 1929, Steinway constructed one double- grand piano.

It has 164 and 4. (In 2005, Steinway refurbished this instrument). During World War II, the Steinway factory in Queens received orders from the Allied Armies to build wooden gliders to convey troops behind enemy lines. Steinway could make few normal pianos, but built 2,436 special models called the Victory Vertical or Piano. It was a small piano that four men could lift, painted olive drab, gray, or blue, designed to be carried aboard ships or dropped by parachute from an airplane to bring music to the soldiers. The factory in Hamburg, Germany, could sell very few pianos during World War II.

No more than a hundred pianos per year left the factory. In the later years of the war, the company was ordered to give up all the prepared and dried wood their lumber yard held for war production. In an air raid over Hamburg, several Allied bombs hit the factory and nearly destroyed it. After the war, Steinway restored the Hamburg factory with help from the. In the late 1960s, Steinway brought countersuit against Grotrian-Steinweg to stop them from using the name Steinweg on their pianos.

Steinway won the case on appeal in 1975, forcing their competitor to use only the name Grotrian in the United States. The case set a and established the concept of, in which consumers might be initially attracted to a similarly named but lesser-known brand because of the stronger brand's good reputation. In 1972, after a lengthy strike, a long-running financial struggle, high legal expenses, and a lack of business interest among some of the Steinway family members, the firm was sold to. At that time CBS owned many enterprises in the entertainment industry, including electric guitar and amplifier maker, drum maker, electro-mechanical piano maker, and the baseball team. CBS had plans to form a musical that made and sold music in all forms and through all outlets, including records, radio, television, and musical instruments. This new conglomerate was evidently not as successful as CBS had expected, and Steinway was sold in 1985, along with classical and church organ maker and flute and piccolo maker, to a group of Boston-area investors.

In order to acquire Steinway, the investors founded the musical conglomerate Steinway Musical Properties. In 1995, Steinway Musical Properties merged with the Selmer Company to form the musical conglomerate, which was named Company of the Year in 1996 by: 'As the industry's most recognized trademark Steinway & Sons is synonymous with piano quality worldwide. Steinway's success has been hard-won on the factory floors in Long Island City and Hamburg, Germany, and on retail showrooms around the world.'

The award was given in recognition of Steinway's 'overall performance, quality, value-added products, a well-executed promotional program and disciplined distribution which generated the most impressive results in the entire music industry.' Steinway Musical Instruments acquired the flute manufacturer Emerson in 1997, the piano keyboard maker Kluge in 1998, and the Steinway Hall in Manhattan, New York City, in 1999.

The conglomerate made more acquisitions in the following years. From 1996 to 2013, Steinway Musical Instruments was traded at the (NYSE) under the abbreviation LVB, for. Recent history [ ]. Steinway piano No. 500,000 from 1988 In 1988, Steinway made its 500,000th piano. The piano was designed by artist. The names of the 832 pianists and 90 ensembles on the roster of 1987 are written on the piano, including,, and.

In 1994, Steinway launched C. Theodore Steinway Academy for Concert Technicians, also known as Steinway Academy, at Steinway's factory in Hamburg, Germany. At Steinway Academy experienced piano tuners and piano technicians from all over the world receive further training in and. 's Steinway upright piano sold at auction to in 2000 for £1.67 million By the year 2000, Steinway had made its 550,000th piano. In 2003, Steinway celebrated its 150th anniversary at with a three-day concert series with performances by,,,,,,,,, and, among others. The first concert featured classical music, the second jazz, and the third pop.

As part of the 150th anniversary, fashion designer created a commemorative Steinway limited edition grand piano. In 2005, Steinway celebrated the 125th anniversary of the establishment of its factory in Hamburg, Germany. The celebration featured a concert at the concert hall in Hamburg with performances by and Vovka Ashkenazy,, and. 1,800 people from 33 countries attended the concert. As part of the celebration, a 125th anniversary Steinway limited edition grand piano was designed. Until his death on September 18, 2008 at the age of 93,, the great-grandson of the Steinway founder, still worked for Steinway and put his signature on custom-made limited edition pianos. At several public occasions, Henry Z.

Steinway represented the Steinway family. He started at the company in 1937 after graduating from. He was president of the company from 1955 to 1977 and was the last Steinway family member to be president of Steinway.

After the, Steinway grand piano sales fell by half and 30 percent of the union employees were laid off from the Queens factory between August 2008 and November 2009. Sales were down 21 percent in 2009 in the United States. As of 2010, sales began increasing a little and in 2011 sales increased further. In June 2013, private equity firm offered to buy Steinway parent company for $438 million. On August 14, 2013, hedge fund made a higher offer of $512 million to take the company private; the Steinway Musical Instruments board recommended that shareholders accept it. In September 2013, Paulson & Co.

Announced the completion of the acquisition. In 2015, Steinway went back to the industry from around the 1920s by introducing a digital player piano series called Spirio. The technology in the Spirio pianos was created in 2007 by Wayne Stahnke, an Austrian engineer who has previously made digital player piano systems for other piano companies, like and.

Wayne Stahnke's technology, originally called Live Performance Model LX, was sold to Steinway in 2014 and re-branded as Spirio. Concerto Moon Gate Triumph Rar Download Free. In contrast to player pianos by other brands, a recording option is not available in Steinway Spirio pianos. Later in 2015, Steinway made its 600,000th piano.

The piano features the spiral and veneer. It took 6,000 hours of work over 4 years to make the piano. It was priced at $2.4 million. Models [ ] Steinway pianos are sold by a worldwide network of around 200 authorized Steinway dealers who operate around 300 showrooms. Grands and uprights [ ] Steinway makes the following models of and: Steinway's factory in Hamburg, Germany, makes seven models of grand piano and two models of upright piano. (The numerical portion of the model designations represent the length of the grand pianos and the height of the upright pianos in ).

• Grand pianos: S-155, M-170, O-180, A-188, B-211, C-227, • Upright pianos: V-125, Steinway's factory in Queens, New York City, makes six models of grand piano and three models of upright piano. • Grand pianos: S (5' 1'), M (5' 7'), O (5' ​ 10 3⁄ 4'), A (6' 2'), B (6' ​ 10 1⁄ 2'), (8' ​ 11 3⁄ 4') • Upright pianos: 4510 (45'), 1098 (46 1/2'), (52') Special designs [ ]. Steinway art case piano designed by on display at the art museum Designers and artists such as,, and have created original designs for Steinway pianos. These specially designed pianos fall under the art case piano line or the limited edition piano line. Steinway began creating art case pianos in 1857 and the making of art case pianos reached its peak in the late 19th century. Today, Steinway only builds art case pianos on rare occasions. The art case pianos are unique, because Steinway builds only one of each.

Some of Steinway's most notable art case pianos are the Alma-Tadema grand piano from 1887, the 100,000th Steinway piano from 1903, the 300,000th Steinway piano from 1938, and the Sound of Harmony from 2008. The Alma-Tadema grand piano was designed by Sir Lawrence Alma-Tadema and received great public acclaim when it was exhibited in London. The piano is made of, inlaid with and, with carved case, lid, and legs, and painted in the inside lid by artist. It was bought by financier for his New York City mansion. In 1997, it was sold at auction house in London for $1.2 million, setting a price record for a piano sold at auction. It is now on display at the art museum.

The 100,000th Steinway piano was given as a gift to the in 1903 and is made of with. It is decorated with of the thirteen original states of America and painted by with dancing figures representing the nine. The 100,000th Steinway piano was replaced in 1938 by the 300,000th Steinway piano. The mahogany legs of the 300,000th piano are carved as and are moulded by sculptor. The piano remains in use in the White House. The Sound of Harmony is decorated with inlays of 40 different woods, including the lid, which replicates artwork by Chinese painter Shi Qi. It took about four years to build the grand piano and it was priced at €1.2 million.

The piano was chosen for use at the. Examples of limited edition pianos include The S.L.ED by Karl Lagerfeld created to celebrate the 150th anniversary of the Steinway company in 2003, and the 125th anniversary grand piano by designed to celebrate the 125th anniversary in 2005 of the foundation of the Steinway factory in Hamburg, Germany. In 1999, Steinway introduced a new line of specially designed pianos, the Steinway Crown Jewel Collection. The collection consists of grand and upright pianos in Steinway's traditional design, but instead of the traditional ebony finish the pianos of the Steinway Crown Jewel Collection are made in veneers of rare woods from around the world. The collection contains such as,, and kewazinga. Boston grand piano In addition to the Steinway & Sons brand, Steinway markets two other brands: Boston for the mid-level market and Essex for the entry-level market.

Boston and Essex pianos are made using lower-cost components and labor. Pianos of these two brands, made with Steinway owned designs, are manufactured in Asia by suppliers.

Steinway allows only its authorized Steinway dealers to carry new Boston and Essex pianos. • Boston: made for the general mid-ranged piano market at lower prices than Steinway's name brand. Boston pianos are manufactured at the piano factory in,. There are five sizes of Boston grands and three sizes of Boston uprights available in a variety of finishes.

Grand piano models are GP-156 PE, GP-163 PE, GP-178 PE, GP-193 PE, and GP-215 PE. Upright piano models are UP-118 PE, UP-126 PE, and UP-132 PE. Boston pianos incorporate some of the features of Steinway pianos such as a wider tail design (a feature of the Steinway piano models A-188, B-211, C-227, and D-274) resulting in a larger area than conventionally shaped pianos of comparable sizes, a maple inner rim, and Steinway's patented Octagrip pinblock. • Essex: made for the entry-range market and is lower priced than Steinway and Boston pianos. Since 2005, Essex pianos are made at the piano factory in,. Prior to 2005, they were made by in Korea. There are two sizes of Essex grands and four sizes of Essex uprights available in a wide variety of finishes and furniture designs.

Grand piano models are EGP-155 and EGP-173. Upright piano models are EUP-108, EUP-111, EUP-116, and EUP-123. Like the Boston pianos, Essex pianos incorporate some of the features of Steinway pianos as well: a wider tail design, an all-wood action with Steinway geometry with rosette-shaped hammer flanges, and reinforced hammers with metal fasteners. Piano bank [ ] Steinway maintains a worldwide 'piano bank' from which performing pianists, especially, can select a Steinway piano for use in a certain concert, recording, or tour.

The idea is to provide a consistent pool of Steinway pianos with various characteristics for performing pianists' individual touch and tonal preferences. Performing artists choose a piano for use at a certain venue after trying some of the pianos of the 'piano bank'. This allows a range of Steinway pianos with various touch and tonal characteristics to be available for performers to choose from. Steinway takes responsibility for preparing, tuning, and delivering the piano of the performer's choice to the designated concert hall or recording studio. The performer bears the cost of these services. The 'piano bank' consists of approximately 300 Steinway pianos valued collectively at $15 million in 2002.

Manufacture [ ] German and American factories [ ]. At a Steinway grand piano made in Queens, New York City Some pianists of the past and some active pianists today have expressed a preference for Steinway pianos made at Steinway's factory in Hamburg, Germany, or at Steinway's factory in Queens, New York City., concert pianist and piano teacher at the, have said that '. the differences have more to do with individual instruments than with where they were made.' , American piano technician and author of The Piano Book, considers Hamburg Steinway pianos to be of a higher quality than Queens Steinway pianos.

In 2010, the Steinway factory in Queens made some changes in its manufacturing processes and materials in order to upgrade the quality of the Queens Steinway pianos. Larry Fine was invited by Steinway officials to tour the Queens factory to see some of the manufacturing changes. Fine wrote in his Acoustic & Digital Piano Buyer of Spring 2011 that the changes have improved the quality of Queens Steinway pianos, but that Hamburg Steinway pianos are still of a higher quality than Queens Steinway pianos.

The Steinway piano market is divided into two sales areas: the Queens Steinway factory, which supplies North and South America, and the Hamburg Steinway factory, which supplies the rest of the world. At all main Steinway showrooms across the world, customers can order pianos from either factory. The Hamburg and Queens factories exchange parts and craftsmanship, and Steinway parts for both factories come from the same places: Canadian is used for the rim, and the are made from from. Both factories use similar crown parameters for their diaphragmatic soundboards. To maintain quality, Steinway has acquired some of its suppliers. Steinway bought the German manufacturer Kluge in Wuppertal, which supplies keyboards, in December 1998, and in November 1999, purchased the company that supplies its plates, O.

In Springfield, Ohio. A majority of the world's concert halls own at least one Steinway piano, and some (for example ) have model D-274s from both the Hamburg factory and the Queens factory to satisfy a greater range of preferences. Components [ ]. Interior of a Steinway grand piano showing the rim, plate,,,, and Each Steinway grand piano consists of more than 12,000 individual parts.

A Steinway piano is handcrafted and takes nearly a year to build. Steinway maintains its own lumber yards at both the Hamburg factory and the Queens factory, aging and drying lumber from nine months to five years. Less than 50 percent is finally used in the making of Steinway pianos.

More than 70 percent of the stock is discarded. The woods are purchased when they are available rather than when they are needed. Rim [ ] The rim of Hamburg-made Steinway pianos consists of layers of hard rock maple and mahogany and the rim of Queens-made Steinway pianos consists of layers of hard rock maple only. The layers are glued and pressed together into one piece in one operation using rim-bending presses that invented in 1880.

After the rim-bending process, the rim has to rest from the stress of being bent. It is placed in a conditioning room for a month or more to reduce the moisture content of the wood to approximately six percent. Plate [ ] Inside the Steinway piano, a plate provides the strength to support the tension from 16 tons up to 23 tons. The iron plate is installed above the soundboard and is, lacquered, polished, and decorated with the Steinway logo. Steinway fabricates plates in its own foundry.

Soundboard and bridges [ ] Steinway makes its from solid, which allows the soundboard to transmit and amplify sound. The soundboard in Steinway pianos are double-crowned with Steinway's diaphragmatic design. The diaphragmatic soundboard, which was granted a patent in 1936, tapers in thickness from the center to the edges, which permits more freedom of movement resulting in a richer and more lasting tonal response.

Steinway are made of vertically laminated hard rock maple with a hard rock maple cap. The bridges are measured for specific height requirements for each piano and are hand notched. Keys and action [ ]. Of a Steinway grand piano Steinway are of Bavarian spruce. The surface of the white keys is made of. It was earlier made of elephant.

Around the 1950s, Steinway switched from using ivory, and some years later use of ivory for piano keys was outlawed. The action parts are mounted on Steinway's tubular metallic frame.

The Steinway hammers are cut from, containing no admixture of other materials. In 1963, the Queens Steinway factory introduced the Permafree action for its grand pianos, using parts in place of cloth bushings. The Teflon was intended to withstand wear and humidity changes better than cloth. The Teflon bushings resulted in certain unforeseen problems mainly during changes in weather; they were discontinued in 1982. The Hamburg Steinway factory never implemented the Teflon bushings in its pianos. Strings and pinblock [ ] Steinway employs front and rear duplex scales. The idea behind duplex scaling is that the non-speaking portion of the, located between the non-speaking bridge pin and the hitch pin, with the vibrating portion of the string.

The pinblock in Steinway pianos is made of six layers of hard-textured wood that are glued together, set at a 45° angle to the run of the grain. It is designed to keep the piano in tune longer. Affiliates [ ] Steinway Artists [ ]. Logo of All-Steinway Schools The All-Steinway School designation is given by Steinway to educational institutions of music in which not less than 90 percent of the pianos are designed by Steinway. Steinway does not offer the pianos free of charge but requires that the institutions buy them. Performance venues, teaching studios, and practice rooms for piano students must be equipped with Steinway pianos. Teaching studios and practice rooms for other students may be equipped with Boston or Essex pianos; some All-Steinway Schools have chosen to have Steinway pianos in these rooms also.

It is required that the pianos are kept in performance-quality condition and All-Steinway Schools must have piano technicians that participate in Steinway's technical training programs. If the pianos are not maintained in performance-quality condition, Steinway can withdraw the All-Steinway School designation.

The in Ohio holds the longest partnership with Steinway. They have used Steinway pianos exclusively since 1877, 24 years after Steinway was founded. In 2007, they obtained their 200th Steinway piano, a model manufactured at Steinway's factory in Hamburg, Germany. Other examples of All-Steinway Schools are the at in Connecticut, the in Pennsylvania,, the in Australia, and the in Beijing. In 2007, the in Potsdam, New York, was added to the All-Steinway School roster, receiving 141 pianos in one $3.8 million order. In 2009, the in Ohio became designated an All-Steinway School, based on a $4.1 million order of 165 new pianos, one of the largest orders Steinway has ever processed. As of November 2017, there are more than 190 All-Steinway Schools around the world.

Piano competitions [ ] Several international piano competitions use Steinway pianos. Steinway has been selected exclusively by such competitions as the in Fort Worth, Texas, the in Salt Lake City, Utah, the in Leipzig, Germany, the in Brussels, Belgium, the in Bolzano, Italy, and the in Paris. 'Sudden Mania to become Pianists created upon hearing Steinway's Pianos at the Paris Exposition.'

This lithograph by conveys the popularity of the Steinway piano, the musicality of which had just been demonstrated by pianist at the in Paris. (, August 10, 1867, reporting on the world exposition). The Steinway company and its leaders have won numerous awards, including: • In 1839, exhibited three pianos at the state trade exhibition in Braunschweig, Germany, and was awarded a gold medal.

• In 1855, Steinway attended the Metropolitan Mechanics Institute fair in Washington, D.C. And won 1st prize. • In 1855, Steinway exhibited at the in the in what is now in New York City.

Steinway won a gold medal. A reporter wrote the following about Steinway: 'Their are characterized by great power of tone, a depth and richness in the bass, a full mellowness in the middle register and brilliant purity in the treble, making a scale perfectly equal and singularly melodious throughout its entire range. In touch, they are all that could be desired.'

• From 1855 to 1862, Steinway pianos received 35 medals in the United States alone, since which time Steinway entered their pianos at international exhibitions only. • In 1862, for the in London, Steinway shipped two square pianos and two grand pianos to England (two to Liverpool and two to London) and won 1st prize. • In 1867, Steinway won three awards at the in Paris: the Grand Gold Medal of Honor, the Grand Annual Testimonial Medal, and an honorary membership of the. These awards won in Europe increased the demand for Steinway pianos, thus the reason the family looked into opening a store in London. The International Exposition of 1867 established Steinway as the leading choice for pianos in Europe. • In 1876, at the in the United States, Steinway received the two highest awards and a certificate of the judges showing a rating of 95.5 of a possible 96.

• In 1885, Steinway received the gold medal at the in London and the grand gold medal of the in London. • In 2007, the was awarded to and presented by US President in an East Room ceremony at the. Steinway received the award for '. His devotion to preserving and promoting quality craftsmanship and performance, as an arts patron and advocate for music and music education; and for continuing the fine tradition of the Steinway piano.'

• In 2014, Steinway received the product design award for the Arabesque limited edition grand piano. The jury wrote: 'The design of the Arabesque impresses through elegance and individuality. It thus excellently complements the high-class product line of this renowned manufacturing house.' Patented inventions [ ]. In action at Steinway's factory in Hamburg, Germany, 2006 Steinway has been granted 126 in piano making; the first patent was achieved in 1857.

Some examples of these are: • Patent No. 26,532 (December 20, 1859): The bass strings are 'overstrung' above the treble strings to provide more length and better tonal quality.

The invention won 1st prize medal at the in London. Today, the invention is a standard feature of grand piano construction. 126,848 (May 14, 1872): Steinway invented the duplex scale on the principle of enabling the freely oscillating parts of the string, directly in front of and behind the segment of the string actually struck, also to resound. The outcome is a large range and fullness of overtones – one of the characteristics of the Steinway sound. 127,383 (May 28, 1872): In a Steinway piano, the cast iron plate rests on wooden dowels without actually touching the. It is lightly curved, creating a large hollow between the plate and the soundboard. This cavity acts as a reinforcement of the resonant properties.

156,388 (October 27, 1874): Steinway invented the middle, called the sostenuto pedal. The sostenuto pedal gives the pianist an ability to create what is called an by keeping a specific note's damper, or notes' dampers, in their open position(s), allowing those strings to continue to sound while other notes can be played without continuing to resonate. 170,645 (November 30, 1875): Steinway's Regulation Action Pilot, also known as the Capstan Screw, lifts the parts that drive the hammer toward the string. The Steinway device was adjustable, an advance that simplifies the chore of modifying a piano's action to a pianist's liking. 233,710 (October 26, 1880): The bridge transmits the vibration of the strings to the soundboard. In a Steinway piano, the bridge consists of vertically glued laminations; a principle that ensures that vibrations are easily developed and forwarded.

314,742 (March 31, 1885): The rim of Hamburg-made Steinway pianos consists of layers of hard rock maple and mahogany and the rim of Queens-made Steinway pianos consists of layers of hard rock maple only. The layers are pressed together into one piece in one operation. 2,051,633 (August 18, 1936): The soundboard resembles a membrane. The special molding, gradually tapering from the center to the edge, provides great flexibility and freer vibration across the board. 3,091,149 (May 28, 1963): The pinblock is designed to keep the piano in tune longer. Steinway uses six glued layers of hard-textured wood, set at a 45° angle to the run of the grain. Music [ ] Steinway pianos have appeared in numerous records and concerts.

A few examples include. Piano: The Making of a Steinway Concert Grand. New York: Holt.. • Chapin, Miles (1997). 88 keys: The making of a Steinway piano. New York: Potter.. • Fostle, Donald W.

The Steinway Saga: An American Dynasty. New York: Scribner.. • Goldenberg, Susan (1996). Steinway: From glory to controversy; the family, the business, the piano. Oakville, Ontario: Mosaic Press.. • Hoover, Cynthia Adams (1981).

'The Steinways and Their Pianos in the Nineteenth Century'. Journal of the American Musical Instrument Society. Shreveport, Louisiana: American Musical Instrument Society. • Kehl, Roy F.; Kirkland, David R.

The Official Guide to Steinway Pianos. Montclair, New Jersey: Amadeus Press.. • Lieberman, Richard K. Steinway & Sons. New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Press.. • Matthias, Max (2006).

Steinway Service Manual: Guide to the care and maintenance of a Steinway (3rd ed.). Bergkirchen, Germany: PPV-Medien/Bochinsky.. • Ratcliffe, Ronald V.

San Francisco: Chronicle Books.. People and Pianos: A Pictorial History of Steinway & Sons (3rd ed.). Pompton Plains, New Jersey: Amadeus Press..

External links [ ].

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