Geography Of India By Majid Hussain Free Download 3,8/5 6476votes
Update: this article was written in Dec 2012. But in March 2013, UPSC introduced some new reforms, While majority of the strategy remains one and same as given in this article. But a few modifications (especially for mains exam) are added. I’ve written a separate article on it • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Act III: Waging the War Loading Doze and Maintenance Doze • You fall sick and doctor gives you medicine. • The initial doze is high: 2 tablets a day.
(this is loading doze) • Take tablets, they kill some bactaria and get eliminated through urine. = symptoms are decreased. • But if you stop taking drug, then ultimately bacteria population will rise again. • So doctor doesn’t completely stop the medicine but reduces the doze, e.g. Just 1 tablet a day. (this is maintenance doze) Ya but how is ^this relevant for UPSC exam? If you’re already finished with the loading doze phase (e.g.
Core syllabus) then all you need is maintenance doze (revision). It leads to many positive effects • Now your ‘vision’ expands. You can clearly see connections between topics and how they’re important for exam or not.
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• Now you can allot more time for upgrading your notes with current affairs. • Now you can digup Government sites and internet for follow up action on various topics. • Now you can practice mock MCQs (prelims) or answer writing (mains) Besides, finishing the core syllabus is also important for another reason:= career backup plan. • In case you fail in the IAS exam and If you’re not a CA, Doctor or IITian, what will you do? Well, the backup plans would usually involve Bank PO, State PSC, SSC type jobs or doing PG/MBA. • Such exams are conducted throughout the year. Whatever you prepare general studies, will directly or indirectly help you in those exams.
• But Here is the problem: most of them require some specific side preparation as well for example Bank, SSC, CAT would require Aptitude. Similarly for State PSC, you’d have to learn the history and geography of Punjab, Maharashtra etc. • So, If your core syllabus of UPSC is not complete, then you will always be under stress on how to manage time between preparation of these exam and it will be like choosing between devil and the deep sea. Therefore, sooner you finish loading doze, better it’ll be for you. First of all complete the core/basic syllabus of following topics Topic Why? • Economy Otherwise, you will not be able to fully digest the newspaper columns. • International relations • Polity • Statistics You will have to spend less time before the mains on this topic.
So that many days or weeks could be utilized for preparing other topics of general studies/opt subjects (if opt.subjects are kept) Statistics • UPDATE (March-08-2013): statistics no longer relevent as UPSC removed it from 2013. Economy update Feb 2014: How to approach Economy, has been explained in a separate article- –following is old information– The core syllabus of economy consists of the following things Theoretical economy Basic Concepts and terminologies, GDP,GNP,PPP,IIP, inflation etc.
Indian economy (static portion) • LPG reforms. • Budget making process.
• RBI monetary policy: Repo, Reverse Repo, CRR, SLR etc. Source: Static portion of the economy • NCERT Class 10, 11, 12 (links @bottom of this article) • NOS Study material for Economy (links @bottom of this article) • You have to move to the next level = current affairs related to Indian and world economy. • DTC, GST,WTO, IMF, World bank etc.
• Various for committees formed by government and their recommendations: Kelkar, shunglu, Parekh etc. • Economic Survey and Budget 2013.
• Eurozone crisis, American recession, dollar-rupee exchange etc. Source: Current affairs on economy • Newspaper (The Hindu / Indianexpress / Economic Times) • Anyone competitive magazine. • Investopedia, Wikipedia, internet • What is Economic Survey? And why is it important? • It is a report published on the official website of Finance Ministry (before General budget is announced). • This report contains information on the present situation of Indian economy, various schemes of Government and future approach required for the next year.
• It has lot of boring and unimportant data tables but also contains good fodder material and exam-worthy information. • If you’re subscribed to any competitive Magazine, you would usually find the highlights of economic survey in the subsequent issues of the magazine.
Yet I would recommend you to go through the original economic survey report because magazines or newspapers only tend to cover the dramatic items. • Whatever important details you find, make a note out of it. Economy: Prelims/ MCQs • You are given a term and 4 explanations for that term. You have to identify the correct definition • You are given a problem (inflation or low IIP or currency depreciation) and 2-4 possible solutions, you have identify the correct solution to fix the problem. (This can also be framed as assertion –reasoning type question) • You are given name of a committee and 2-4 recommendations. You to tick the correct recommendations.
• Match the following: you are given name of some organizations on one side and functions performed by organizations on the other side. You have to match them • Your given name of an organization SEBI/NABARD/CCI/RBI etc and four statements associated with them you have to find correct statements. • You are given name of some government scheme or policy or act related to economy and four statements associated with them. You have to find the correct statements • The trivial GK based questions e.g. Names of businessmen/company, repo rate in particular month, establishment of particular organization etc.
BUT they’re are generally not appearing under “back breaking TM move” In short, whenever you are preparing anything related to economy, think on those lines and try to frame the questions by yourself. Also solve the mock questions given in your. Economy: Mains In the 90s era, you could expect direct questions example • Difference between the functions of IMF and World Bank =10 marks • Explain the functions performed by RBI = 12 marks • Explain the budget making process=20 marks. Such direct questions are very unlikely to appear in future mains. At most they may ask such things on two markers or five marker question.
• The 12, 15, 20 marker economy-questions seems to be reserved for “critically examine/ Analysis” this and that type of questions. • You have to keep gathering fodder material from newspaper columns. For example • “Critically examine the issues involved in implementation of goods and services tax or Direct Tax code.” • These topics will again gain momentum before and after the budget-2013.
• Keep an eye on the newspaper columns, TV reports during that time and maintain notes. • Same advice for each and every topic. For example SEBI- e-IPO issue was in news few weeks back. • So if you prepare the notes when the issue is still hot= best. • Sometimes issues are very complicated and require you to do research on Internet. If you can’t do It immediately, then note down the title of topic in your “To-Do” list/diary.
• Otherwise after two three weeks you’ll forget it and get busy with some new important topic. • Then same question would appear in Mains/ Prelims and you will curse yourself “damn I should have done that topic, when I had the time”. You may also visit and download the relevant PDF files from Economics section for selective study and fodder material. International relations • Prelims: not part of syllabus. (ofcourse one or two random questions can come on world geography, Summits, Current Affairs) • But for mains, international relations/ diplomacy =extremely important.
In Mains examination, The General Studies Paper II rests on four pillars • International relations • Economy • science tech • statistics If any one pillar is weak, your building will collapse. How to approach International Relations =Already explained in a separate article.
You also keep an eye on websites ministry of external affairs and ministry of overseas affairs. Notes making = extremely important for international relations because usually you will not find direct answers in any single chapter or article. You’ve to keep following news for months.
For example • In Xyz Month, suppose there is big protest / PIL regarding POSCO. Newspapers will cover it and you get say 3 fodder points. Note it down • After a few months, either S.Korea President comes to India or Mohan makes a trip there (Mohan usually makes foreign trips when there a new scandal at home, because then he is saved from answering the media or lets the “high command” cover up the problem hehehe.) • Anyways back to the topicso when leaders make trip to each other’s nation, they release a joint press statement. You’ll usually find 5 fodder points in it. • After some months, China and S.Korea start fighting over some sea/land/island. Again newspaper columns start covering it and you get 3 more points.
Total you’ve 3+5+3=11 points. When they ask you about India-S.Korea relations, you can use those points to write a decent answer. Polity Just one book: The question is how to effectively use Laxmikanth?
For that, don’t study the book in linear fashion (chapter 1,2,3,4) Instead I suggest you move in following direction • First you read the chapter on President, Vice President and immediately move to the chapter on governor. Then read on Emergency provisions. • Read chapter on PM and cabinet, then move to CM and state council of Ministers. • Chpater on “Parliamentary system” and then directly to parliament, but after budget topic is done pause this chapter and move to on CAG.
Then come back and resume the chapter on parliament. • Once parliament is finished, move to State legislative assembly.
• Same way Supreme Court and then High court, tribunals. • Attorney Gen =>Advocate General • UPSC =>State PSC • Finance Commission =>Planning Commission=>Nat.Development council • Now Centre State and Interstate relations. • Election Commission=>chapter on election, Anti-defection • All the National Commissions on Women, SC, ST,OBC, CVC, Lokpal and so on. Once ^this is done. Move to • Citizenship, Fundamental rights, DPSP, duties. • Amendment of Constitution=>preamble • Jammu Kashmir =>Scheduled and Tribal Areas.
• UT, Panchayati Raj, municipalities After ^this is done. Read whatever chapters are remaining. Note: the short explanations given in appendix of every chapter= should be read. Should I make notes out of Laxmikanth?
• M.Laxmikanth has the skill of writing book in a ‘note-format’. • So whether it is his book on polity or on Public Administration, there is no need to maintain a special note out of his books. • Just highlight/underline important lines. Note down keywords on the margin. And keep revising it as many times as you can. • When you’ve done enough revision, solve mock questions given at the end of his book (around 300).
Then solve another 400 Mock Qs given in the GS manual. So total 700 questions practiced. Then UPSC MCQs on polity will not give you much trouble. Anyways ^this is only the static polity. What about the current affairs on Polity?
• Women’s reservation bill = explicitly polity topic. • But at times polity related current affairs and possible questions are subtly hidden in the current affairs. • So be vigilant. For example, Nuke power plant issue would superficially appear as ‘environment/yearbook’ but can be well asked from Centre-State relations point of view. • Supreme court’s order on Ganga/Yamuna clearing would appear as “environment” topic but can be asked under Centre-State’s responsibilities in water Management also. • Same goes for 2G scam, mining scams and so on.
(Judicial Activism, Seperation of power, CAG Activism and so on) Sources for current affairs • Newspaper • Prsindia.org • –So far we have seen how to approach International affairs, Economy and Polity. You should finish their core syllabus first, in order to fully digest the newspaper items. Now moving to the other topics of syllabus. History (GS/CSAT) update Feb 2014: for History/culture portion, use the Tamilnadu (TN) State education board books. They’re better than NCERTs. (Free download @bottom). –following is old information– For prelims (CSAT General Studies Paper I), History is subdivided into three segments Ancient Harappa, Vedic Age, Buddha, Mahavir, Gupta,Maurya Kingdoms etc.
Medieval Delhi Sultanate, Vijaynagar, Mughals etc. Modern British Raj. 1857 Mutiny onwards. Freedom struggle. In the 90s, questions used to be based on • Timelines: wars, kings, • Locations: of Harappa Sites where xyz type of pottery was found, or Asoka’s pillars • Match the following • Maps: they’d give you a blank map, you had to locate xyz state or kingdom. In last three years, questions are mostly based on religion, culture, art and ‘features/cause/reason’ type.
Although UPSC hasnot asked ‘map based’ question lately but if you’ve time, it doesn’t hurt preparing the maps (because UPSC is the baddest thug in this part of South East Asia.) you’ll find the Ancient/Medieval maps in NCERTs and in GS Manual. Essential Booklist for History (GS/CSAT) • NCERT class 7 to 10 Social Science • NCERT class 11, 12 on History • NOS Studymaterial on Indian Culture and Heritage. ^all of these free, download links @bottom of this article • Selective Study of History portion in (to fill up vacuum of whatever details are missing in the NCERTs).
But again skip very tiny details such as “Middle Palaeolithic tools were found at Nevasa, Maharashtra by HD Sankalia”. Because it won’t go in long term memory. Your time and energy can be better utilized in other topics. Once this is done, solve all the Mock MCQs given in the General Studies Manual. In The NCERT Class 9 and 10, you’ll also find information on World History (WW1, WW2, French Revolution, Russian Revolution etc) While they’re not specifically mentioned in the syllabus, you should read it because indirectly important for Essay and interview. History (Mains/GS) In the 90s, the General Studies paper used to have following structure, in History section • 3-5 descriptive question (60 marks) • Freedom fighter 2 markers (10 marks) • Culture related 2 markers (10 marks) Ofcourse there would be fluctuation each year, but this was the usual makeup.
• Success formula in 90s era= basically mugup Spectrum’s three books + Bipin Chandra. • That doesn’t hold true anymore, as we saw in GS Mains-2012 Analysis ( if you didn’t) • Nowadays weightage given to History in GS mains paper = declined and emphasis has been shifted to Culture. So how to proceed in this new era? • • Selective Study of IGNOU BA/MA History (only related to freedom Struggle) • Selective Study of IGNOU Tourism Course (for culture) • NOS material on Indian culture • Optional reference Because of the backbreaking TM move of UPSC, following books have lost their former glory. So I’m putting them under Secondary. If you’ve time, read else don’t bother.
There are many other areas where you can utilize your energy. However, for State PSC exams, who’re still in the 90s mood, these books would come handy. In that case, mug them up:) Geography Geography classified into three parts • Physical geography • World geography • Indian Geography the first two topics come in prelims syllabus. But they are not included in the main syllabus. For Mains syllabus of General Studies, you’ve to prepare Indian Geography only. How to Approach Geography for CSAT-Prelims? First of all complete • NCERT class 7 to 10 social science • NCERT class 11, 12: Geography (except that practical book on mapping and survey methods) • NOS Studymaterial on Geography (if the time and eyes permit you!).
This concludes Act III. In next, We’ll see the doubts related to “should I join coaching or not?, “will UPSC remove optionals or not?”, “how to manage time and mood?” etc. Remaining Part of the UPSC Strategy • • • • Appendix1: Download Links • Foxit PDF reader (necessary prerequisite for using Mrunal’s autonotemaker) • Almost all of these PDF files provides direct copying of text. =>That means you can use Mrunal’s autonotemaker to quickly make notes and mindmaps out of it, just use mouse cursor to highlight a particular line /phrase and my software will copy its text in a separate file. For more instructions NCERT and NIOS (Essential/Core) TN State edu Books (for History) NIOS (for Culture) NCERT files: topicwise: You’ll find the material organized in various folders. Click on individual folder and download zip files.
Here is the description about the contents of individual folder: Folder Comment History • Contains NCERT history chapters from class 7 to 12, in three zip files: ancient, medieval and Modern • +NIOS Culture material Science • Contains class 7 to 10 NCERT Science in three zips: physics, chemistry, biology. • +NIOS Science material. (although there will be lot of overlapping) • Class 11, 12 Science books given in the peripheral section below. EnB • Contains selective chapters from class 6 to 12 from science and geography textbooks that are relevant for Environment and biodiversity. • +NIOS material for environment and biodiversity EnB. Economy • Contains NCERT class 11 + NCERT 12 Macro economics • +NIOS economy material.
• Class 12 Micro-economics not included because not worth the time for CDS. Although download link in the peripheral section below. Geography • Contains NCERT class 6 to 12 in five zip folders: physical, India, World, Agro and glossary. • +NIOS material on geography (although lot of overlapping) NCERT and NIOS (Peripheral) read these if depending on your time and mood. NIOS Single folder contains many courses from NIOS: sociology, political science etc. Download as per your time, mood and requirement.
2014 • What are nappes? Explain the theories related to origin of rift valleys. • ‘Certainly the problem of mountain building is one in which the hypothesis of continental rift solves more difficulties than it creates’. Explain in the light of continental drift theory by Alfred Wegener. Topic: Geomorphology (Isostasy) • ‘Both the views appear similar but not the same.’ In light of the statement give detailed comparative analysis of the views of Airy and Pratt on isostasy. (200 words) • With suitable diagrams explain concept of Holmes on isostasy.
(200 words) Topic: Models, Theories & Laws in Human Geography 1.Write shote note: Gravity Model. (200 words) 2.Write a note on Weight Triangle. (200 words) Topic: Models, Theories & Laws in Human Geography 1. Bring out the sequential improvements in models of city structure by E.W Burgess, Homeer, Hoyt and Harris and Ullam. (300 words/ CSM 2010) 2. Write shote note: Isolated State (200 words/ CSM 2002) Topic: Population and Settlement Geography • Write short explanatory note on Secondary cities in the context of urbanization in developing world.
(200 words/ CSM 2012) 2. Elaborate the concept of Megalopolis and discuss the characteristics and problems related to two such regions selecting one each from North America and Europe. (200 words/ CSM 2009) Topic:Population and settlement Geography Question 1 Write explanatory note Misra`s theoretical stage of Rural- Urban Process. (200 words/ CSM 2013) Question 2 ” Urban Solid Waste Management poses the greatest challenge in Metropolitan planning’. (250 words/ CSM 2013) Topic:Population and settlement Geography Question 1 ” Urban Geography is nothing but city ” in ” area and city “as” area. (200 words) Question 2 “Colonial forces resulted in the Primate Pattern of urban process in most Southeast Asian countries “.
Discuss (200 words) TOPIC: POPULATION AND SETTLEMENT GEOGRAPHY Question 1 Regional Shifts in the world characteristics of urban process. (200 words) Question 2 Bring out the contrast between the internal structure of the pre-industrial and industrial cities Topic: Regional Planning Question 1 Explain the Regional shifts in the world characteristics of urban process. (200 words) Question 2 Elucidate the role of Tribal Development Blocks In the development of Tribal Areas. (200 words) Topic: Regional Planning Question 1 Give the hierarchy of planning regions and bring about the role of metropolitan planning in fostering regional development in India. Question 2 Differentiate between River basin and command Area. Discuss the advantage and disadvantage of River Basins as planning regions in India. TOPIC: REGIONAL PLANNING Question 1 Examine the geographical bases for growth of regional consciousness and relionalism. (200 words) Question 2 Write a note: Role of rural markets in regional development. (200 words) Topic:Regional Planning Question 1 Discuss the objectives of ‘Vision 2020′ in creation of viable village complex in India for inclusive Rural Development programme.
(200 words) Question 2 City regions as territorial unit for regional planning and development. Elaborate (200 words). TOPIC: SETTLEMENT Question 1 Write a note on emergence of National Settlement System in colonial India and discuss the factors contributing to urbanization in post-independence period. (200 words) Question 2 Morphological characteristics of villages situated in hilly regions. (200 words) TOPIC: SETTLEMENT Question 1 Differentiate between conurbations and metrolitan regions.
Give a reasoned account of emerging conurbations in India. (300 words/CSM 2011) Question 2 Outline the role of Class I and Class II towns in the urban process of India and indicate their contribution towards balanced urban development. (300 words/CSM 2011) TOPIC: SETTLEMENT Question 1 Explain the morphology of Indian cities in the background of excisting morphological models. (200 words) Question 2 Provide the geographical background and characteristics of the distribution of Hill Stations of India. (200 words) TOPIC: SETTLEMENT Question 1 Hierarchical pattern of Indian towns. (200 words/CSM 1999) Question 2 Write short note: Land use characteristics of the rural-urban fringe in India. (200 words/ CSM 1995) TOPIC: SETTLEMENT Question 1 Write short note: internal structure of an Indian city. (200 words/ CSm 1995) Question 2 Write short note: Function, classification and hierarchy of urban settlement. (200 words/ CSm 1990) TOPIC: SETTLEMENT Question State the geographical factors which influence rural house types in India.
(300 words/ CSM 2009) TOPIC: CULTURAL SETTING Question Discuss the causes and consequences of sex-ratio variations in India. (200 words/ CSM 2006) TOPIC: CULT URAL SETTING Question Describe the impact of linguistic diversity on the development of various regions of India. (200 words) Topic: CULTURAL SETTING Question Write a note on Demographic dividend and its implications on environment. Topic: CULTURAL SETTING Question Enumerate the basic indicators of development and explain their application in identification of spatial diversity in the development in India.
(200 words) Topic: Map pointing Question On the outline map of india mark the location of all of the following. Also write the significance of these locations, whether physical/commercial/economic/ecological/environmental/cultural in not more than 40 words. Kishenganga 2.Tso moriri 3.Banihal 4.Kangra valley 5.Pong Dam 6.
Manikaran Question 1 Differences between Normal cycle and Arid cycle of Davis. (150 words) Question 2 Differentiate Storm Surges and Seiches. (150 words) Question 3 On the outline map of india mark the location of all of the following. Also write the significance of these locations, whether physical/commercial/economic/ecological/environmental/cultural in not more than 40 words. 1.Luni 2.Deedwana lake 3.Lipulekh 4.Tehri 5. Rajaji National Park 6.Kamet Question 1 Uniqueness of fauna in the Notogean realm.
(150 words) Question 2 Impact of Pleistocene Ice Age on the crust of the Earth. (150 words) Question 3 On the outline map of india mark the location of all of the following. Also write the significance of these locations, whether physical/commercial/economic/ecological/environmental/cultural in not more than 40 words 1.Khetri 2.Sariska 3.Gandhi Sagar 4. Vaishno devi Question 1 With suitable examples, bring out the impact of local winds on the climate of an area. (250 words) Question 2 What is ‘Base level’? Explain the types of base level.
(250 words) Question 3 On the outline map of india mark the location of all of the following. Also write the significance of these locations, whether physical/commercial/economic/ecological/environmental/cultural in not more than 40 words 1.Bhima river 2. Rana pratap sagar 3. Panna hills 4. Nal sarovar bird sanctuary 6. Ankleshwar Topic: Economic Geography – INDUSTRY Question 1 Distributional pattern of industries in India does not provide requisite basis for division of country into distinct Industrial Regions.
Elaborate. (200 words) Question 2 On the outline map of india mark the location of all of the following. Also write the significance of these locations, whether physical/commercial/economic/ecological/environmental/cultural in not more than 40 words.
Manjra 2.Lonar 3. Girnar hills 4. Burhanpur/ Khandwa gap 5. Kalsubai Topic: Economic Geography – INDUSTRY Question 1 Explain the role of multinationals in globalization of industries in India.
(200 words) Question 2 On the outline map of india mark the location of all of the following. Also write the significance of these locations, whether physical/commercial/economic/ecological/environmental/cultural in not more than 40 words 1. Nakki lake 3. Jawahar Sagar 5. Keoladeo N.P Topic: Economic Geography – INDUSTRY Question 1 Discuss the problems in realization of benefits of globalization and liberalization in industrial sector of India. (200 words) Question 2 On the outline map of india mark the location of all of the following.
Also write the significance of these locations, whether physical/commercial/economic/ecological/environmental/cultural in not more than 40 words. Burhi gandak 2. Govind Ballabh Pant Sagar 3. Dudwa N.P Topic: Economic Geography – INDUSTRY Question Assess the scope and development of Pharmaceutical Industry in India. (200 words) Question 2 On the outline map of india mark the location of all of the following. Also write the significance of these locations, whether physical/commercial/economic/ecological/ environmental/cultural in not more than 40 words • Subarnrekha • Rajmahal hills • Hirakud • Simlipal N.P • Balimela Reservoir Topic: Economic Geography – INDUSTRY Question 1 Examine the problems and prospects of agro-based industries in Bihar. (200 words) Map pointing On the outline map of india mark the location of all of the following. Also write the significance of these locations, whether physical/commercial/economic/ecological/ environmental/ cultural in not more than 40 words 1. Darjeeling 3.
Cirrus Logic Cs4281 Audio Accelerator Driver Windows 7 64. New moore island 5. Renukut Topic: Economic Geography – INDUSTRY Question Explain the factors promoting the rapid growth and development of automobile industry in India, giving suitable examples. (200 words) Topic: Economic Geography – INDUSTRY Question Analyse the role of policy of liberalization on industrial landscape of India.
(200 words) Topic: Economic Geography – INDUSTRY Question Discuss the factors for the localisation of cement industry in india and analyse the pattern of its distribution. (200 words) Topic: Economic Geography – INDUSTRY Question Write a short note on location and growth of fertilizer Industry in India. (200 words/CSM 1988) Topic: Economic Geography – INDUSTRY Question Identify the spatial pattern of agro-industrial region in India. Analyse the potentiality of Malwa as an important agro-industrial region of future. (200 words/ CSM 2012) Map pointing On the outline map of india mark the location of all of the following. Also write the significance of these locations, whether physical/commercial/economic/ecological/ environmental/ cultural in not more than 40 words 1.
Mikir hills 3. Nokrek biosphere reserve Topic: Economic Geography – Transport, Communication & Trade Question Examine the role of road transport in regional development taking suitable examples from an area you have studied in detail.
(200 words/CSM 2012) Topic: Economic Geography – Transport, Communication & Trade Question Assess the growing importance of air transport in India and examine its role in the regional development of the country.(300 words/CSM 2011) Topic: Economic Geography – Transport, Communication & Trade Question 1 What is the role of Triplet Transport System in the regional development of India. (300 words/CSM 2009) Map pointing On the outline map of india mark the location of all of the following. Also write the significance of these locations, whether physical/commercial/economic/ecological/ environmental/cultural in not more than 40 words 1. Cardamom hills 4. Saddle peak Topic: Economic Geography – Transport, Communication & Trade Question Critically examine the complementary and competitive character of the Indian rail routes and the road network. (300 words/ CSM 1999) Map pointing On the outline map of india mark the location of all of the following. Also write the significance of these locations, whether physical/commercial/economic/ecological/environmental/cultural in not more than 40 words 1. Silent valley N.P 3.
Duncan passage Topic: Economic Geography – Transport, Communication & Trade Question Role of rural market centres in fostering intra and inter-regional trade in india. (300 words/CSM 1999) Map pointing On the outline map of india mark the location of all of the following. Also write the significance of these locations, whether physical/commercial/economic/ecological/ environmental/cultural in not more than 40 words 1.Pachmalai hills 2. Nanda devi 3. Gandhi sagar 5.
Broadly speaking, there are 3 different theories that explains evolution of slope with time – 1. Slope decline theory (W.M.Davis) 2. Slope replacement theory (W. Parallel retreat theory (L.C.King).
While the Penck’s theory was asked last year, the other two have been asked time and again in the exam, Also as one cannot separate these slope decline concepts from the Cycle of Erosion and Erosion Surfaces’ concept, they have been asked more often than not. The basic difference between these 3 theories is how they approach evolution of slope angle,i.e., how the slope angle increases or decreases or remains constant with time. In SLOPE DECLINE, the angle of the steepest part decreases progressively accompanied by the development of an upper convexity and a lower concavity. In SLOPE REPLACEMENT,the maximum angle decreases through replacement from below by gentler slopes until the entire slope becomes concave, but in PARALLEL RETREAT the maximum slope angle remains constant, the length of concavity goes on increasing but the slope angle of the concave part goes on decreasing.