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• • • Devanagari (; देवनागरी,: Devanāgarī, a compound of ' देव and ' नागरी; Hindi pronunciation: ), also called Nagari ( Nāgarī, नागरी), is an (alphasyllabary) used in and. It is written from left to right, has a strong preference for symmetrical rounded shapes within squared outlines, and is recognisable by a horizontal line that runs along the top of full letters. In a cursory look, the Devanagari script appears different from other such as,, or, but a closer examination reveals they are very similar except for angles and structural emphasis. The Nagari script has roots in the ancient script family.

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Some of the earliest epigraphical evidence attesting to the developing Sanskrit Nagari script in ancient India, in a form similar to Devanagari, is from the 1st to 4th century CE inscriptions discovered in. The Nagari script was in regular use by the 7th century CE and it was fully developed by about the end of first millennium. The use of Sanskrit in Nagari script in medieval India is attested by numerous pillar and cave temple inscriptions, including the 11th-century Udayagiri inscriptions in, and an inscribed brick found in, dated to be from 1217 CE, which is now held at the British Museum. The script's proto- and related versions have been discovered in ancient relics outside of India, such as in, and; while in East Asia, Siddha Matrika script considered as the closest precursor to Nagari was in use by Buddhists. Nagari has been the of the Indic scripts.

It has long been used traditionally by religiously educated people in South Asia to record and transmit information, existing throughout the land in parallel with a wide variety of local scripts (such as,, and ) used for administration, commerce, and other daily uses. The Devanagari script is used for over 120 languages, making it one of the most used and in the world. Among the languages using it – as either their only script or one of their scripts – are,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, and. The Devanagari script is closely related to the script commonly found in numerous ancient manuscripts of South India, and it is distantly related to a number of southeast Asian scripts. Devanagari script has forty-seven primary characters, of which fourteen are vowels and thirty-three are consonants.

The ancient Nagari script for Sanskrit had two additional consonantal characters. The script has no distinction similar to the capital and small letters of the Latin alphabet. Generally the orthography of the script reflects the pronunciation of the language. In on -leaf in 609 CE., Japan.

The last line is a complete Sanskrit syllabary in Siddhaṃ script Devanagari is part of the of scripts of,,, and South-East Asia. It is a descendant of the, along with and. Variants of script called Nāgarī, recognisably close to Devanagari, are first attested from the 1st century CE Rudradaman inscriptions in Sanskrit, while the modern standardised form of Devanagari was in use by about 1000 CE. Medieval inscriptions suggest widespread diffusion of the Nagari-related scripts, with biscripts presenting local script along with the adoption of Nagari scripts. For example, the mid 8th century Pattadakal pillar in has text in both Siddha Matrika script, and an early Telugu-Kannada script; while, the Kangra Jvalamukhi inscription in is written in both Sharada and Devanagari scripts. A 19th century manuscript in Devanagari.

The 7th-century Tibetan king ordered that all foreign books be transcribed into the Tibetan language. He sent his ambassador to India to acquire alphabet and writing methods; returning with Sanskrit Nagari script from Kashmir corresponding to 24 Tibetan sounds and innovating new symbols for 6 local sounds. Other closely related scripts such as Siddham Matrka was in use in Indonesia, Vietnam, Japan and other parts of East Asia by between 7th- to 10th-century.

Sharada remained in parallel use in. An early version of Devanagari is visible in the dated to 1049 (i.e. 992 CE), which demonstrates the emergence of the horizontal bar to group letters belonging to a word. One of the oldest surviving Sanskrit text from early post-Maurya period available consists of 1,413 Nagari pages of a commentary by Patanjali, with a composition date of about 150 BCE, the surviving copy transcribed about 14th century CE. Nāgarī is the Sanskrit feminine of Nāgara 'relating or belonging to a town or city, urban'. It is a phrasing with lipi ('script') as nāgarī lipi 'script relating to a city', or 'spoken in city'.

The use of the name devanāgarī is relatively recent, and the older term nāgarī is still common. The rapid spread of the term devanāgarī may be related to the almost exclusive use of this script to publish Sanskrit texts in print since the 1870s. Principle [ ]. This section needs additional citations for. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (April 2015) () As a Brahmic abugida, the fundamental principle of Devanagari is that each letter represents a consonant, which carries an inherent vowel.

This is usually written in Latin as a, though it is represented as [ə] in the. The letter is read ka, the two letters क are kana, the three कन are kanaya, etc. Other vowels, or the absence of vowels, require modification of these consonants or their own letters. Main article: In many Indo-Aryan languages, the schwa ('ə') implicit in each consonant of the script is 'obligatorily deleted' at the end of words and in certain other contexts, unlike in Marathi [ ] or Sanskrit. This phenomenon has been termed the ' ' or the ' schwa deletion rule' of Hindi.

One formalisation of this rule has been summarised as ə → ∅ VC_ CV. In other words, when a schwa-succeeded consonant is followed by a vowel-succeeded consonant, the schwa inherent in the first consonant is deleted.

However, this formalisation is inexact and incomplete (it sometimes deletes a schwa when it should not and, at other times, it fails to delete it when it should) and can cause errors. Schwa deletion is computationally important because it is essential to building software for Hindi. As a result of schwa syncope, the Hindi pronunciation of many words differs from that expected from a literal Sanskrit-style rendering of Devanagari.

For instance, राम is rām (not rāma), रचना is rac'nā (not racanā), वेद is vēd (not vēda) and नमकीन is nam'kīn (not namakīna). The name of the script itself is pronounced dev'nāgrī (not devanāgarī). Correct schwa deletion is also critical because, in some cases, the same Devanagari letter sequence is pronounced two different ways in Hindi depending on context, and failure to delete the appropriate schwas can change the sense of the word. For instance, the letter sequence ' रक' is pronounced differently in हरकत ( harkat, meaning movement or activity) and सरकना ( saraknā, meaning to slide).

Similarly, the sequence धड़कने in दिल धड़कने लगा ( the heart started beating) and in दिल की धड़कनें ( beats of the heart) is identical prior to the nasalisation in the second usage. Yet, it is pronounced dhaṛaknē in the first and dhaṛkanē in the second. While native speakers correctly pronounce the sequences differently in different contexts, non-native speakers and voice-synthesis software can make them 'sound very unnatural', making it 'extremely difficult for the listener' to grasp the intended meaning. Allophony of 'v' and 'w' in Hindi [ ] [v] (the ) and [w] (the ) are both of the single represented by the ' व' in Hindi Devanagari.

More specifically, they are conditional allophones, i.e. Rules apply on whether ' व' is pronounced as [v] or [w] depending on context. Native Hindi speakers pronounce ' व' as [v] in vrat ( व्रत, fast) and [w] in pakvān ( पकवान, food dish), perceiving them as a single phoneme and without being aware of the allophone distinctions they are systematically making. However, this specific allophony can become obvious when speakers switch languages. Non-native speakers of Hindi might pronounce ' व' in ' व्रत' as [w], i.e. As wrat instead of the more correct vrat.

This results in a minor intelligibility problem because wrat can easily be confused for aurat, [ ] which means woman, instead of the intended fast (abstaining from food), in Hindi. Compounds [ ]. Main article: The of is written with various symbols depending on. In the, anudātta is written with a bar below the line ( ◌॒), svarita with a stroke above the line ( ◌॑) while udātta is unmarked. Punctuation [ ] The end of a sentence or half-verse may be marked with the ' ।' symbol (called a danda, meaning 'bar', or called a pūrṇa virām, meaning 'full stop/pause'). The end of a full verse may be marked with a double- danda, a ' ॥' symbol.

A comma (called an alpa virām, meaning 'short stop/pause') is used to denote a natural pause in speech. Other punctuation marks such as colon, semi-colon, exclamation mark, dash, and question mark are currently in use in Devanagari script, matching their use in European languages.

Old forms [ ] The following letter variants are also in use, particularly in older texts. Letter variants standard ancient Numerals [ ]. See also:,, and Devanagari digits 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Fonts [ ] A variety of unicode fonts are in use for Devanagari. These include, but are not limited to,,,,,,, Gargi,, Jaipur, Jana, Kalimati, Kanjirowa,, Mangal, Raghu,,,, Thyaka, and.

The form of Devanagari fonts vary with function. According to Harvard College for Sanskrit studies, 'Uttara [companion to Chandas] is the best in terms of ligatures but, because it is designed for Vedic as well, requires so much vertical space that it is not well suited for the 'user interface font' (though an excellent choice for the 'original field' font). Santipur OT is a beautiful font reflecting a very early [medieval era] typesetting style for Devanagari. Sanskrit 2003 is a good all-around font and has more ligatures than most fonts, though students will probably find the spacing of the CDAC-Gist Surekh font makes for quicker comprehension and reading.' Google Fonts project now has a number of in a variety of typefaces in Serif, Sans-Serif, Display and Handwriting categories.

Transliteration [ ]. Main article: A standard transliteration convention was codified in the ISO 15919 standard of 2001.

It uses diacritics to map the much larger set of Brahmic graphemes to the Latin script. The Devanagari-specific portion is nearly identical to the academic standard for Sanskrit,. IAST [ ] The is the academic standard for the romanisation of Sanskrit. IAST is the de facto standard used in printed publications, like books, magazines, and electronic texts with Unicode fonts.

It is based on a standard established by the Congress of Orientalists at in 1912. The ISO 15919 standard of 2001 codified the transliteration convention to include an expanded standard for sister scripts of Devanagari. The, intended for the romanisation of all Indic scripts, is an extension of IAST. Harvard-Kyoto [ ] Compared to IAST, looks much simpler. It does not contain all the diacritic marks that IAST contains. It was designed to simplify the task of putting large amount of Sanskrit textual material into machine readable form, and the inventors stated that it reduces the effort needed in transliteration of Sanskrit texts on the keyboard. This makes typing in Harvard-Kyoto much easier than IAST.

Harvard-Kyoto uses that can be difficult to read in the middle of words. ITRANS [ ] is a lossless transliteration scheme of Devanagari into that is widely used on.

It is an extension of the scheme. In ITRANS, the word devanāgarī is written 'devanaagarii' or 'devanAgarI'. ITRANS is associated with an application of the same name that enables typesetting in.

The user inputs in Roman letters and the ITRANS pre-processor translates the Roman letters into Devanagari (or other Indic languages). The latest version of is version 5.30 released in July, 2001.

It is similar to Velthius system and was created by Avinash Chopde to help print various Indic scripts with personal computers. Velthuis [ ]. Main article: The disadvantage of the above schemes is case-sensitivity, implying that transliterated names may not be capitalised. This difficulty is avoided with the system developed in 1996 by Frans Velthuis for, loosely based on IAST, in which case is irrelevant. ALA-LC Romanisation [ ] ALA-LC romanisation is a transliteration scheme approved by the Library of Congress and the American Library Association, and widely used in North American libraries. Transliteration tables are based on languages, so there is a table for Hindi, one for Sanskrit and Prakrit, etc. Main article: WX is a Roman transliteration scheme for Indian languages, widely used among the community in India.

It originated at for computational processing of Indian languages. The salient features of this transliteration scheme are as follows. • Every consonant and every vowel has a single mapping into Roman. Hence it is a, advantageous from computation point of view. • Lower-case letters are used for unaspirated consonants and short vowels, while capital letters are used for aspirated consonants and long vowels. While the retroflex stops are mapped to 't, T, d, D, N', the dentals are mapped to 'w, W, x, X, n'. Hence the name 'WX', a reminder of this idiosyncratic mapping.

Encodings [ ] ISCII [ ] is an 8-bit encoding. The lower 128 codepoints are plain, the upper 128 codepoints are ISCII-specific. It has been designed for representing not only Devanagari but also various other as well as a Latin-based script with diacritic marks used for transliteration of the Indic scripts. ISCII has largely been superseded by Unicode, which has, however, attempted to preserve the ISCII layout for its Indic language blocks. Main articles:,, and The Unicode Standard defines three blocks for Devanagari: Devanagari (U+0900–U+097F), Devanagari Extended (U+A8E0–U+A8FF), and Vedic Extensions (U+1CD0–U+1CFF).

(PDF) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F U+090x ऀ ऄ अ आ इ ई उ ऊ ऋ ऌ ऍ ऎ ए U+091x ऐ ऑ ऒ ओ औ क ख ग घ ङ च छ ज झ ञ ट U+092x ठ ड ढ ण त थ द ध न ऩ प फ ब भ म य U+093x र ऱ ल ळ ऴ व श ष स ह ऺ ऻ ़ ा ि U+094x ी ु ू ृ ॄ ॅ ॆ े ै ॉ ॊ ो ौ ् ॎ ॏ U+095x ॑ ॒ ॓ ॔ ॕ ॖ ॗ क़ ख़ ग़ ज़ ड़ ढ़ फ़ य़ U+096x ॠ ॡ ॢ ॣ ० १ २ ३ ४ ५ ६ ७ ८ ९ U+097x ॱ ॲ ॳ ॴ ॵ ॶ ॷ ॸ ॹ ॺ ॻ ॼ ॽ ॾ ॿ Notes 1. As of Unicode version 10.0 (PDF) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F U+A8Ex ꣠ ꣡ ꣢ ꣣ ꣤ ꣥ ꣦ ꣧ ꣨ ꣩ ꣪ ꣫ ꣬ ꣭ ꣮ ꣯ U+A8Fx ꣰ ꣱ ꣲ ꣳ ꣴ ꣵ ꣶ ꣷ ꣸ ꣹ ꣺ ꣻ ꣼ ꣽ Notes 1. As of Unicode version 10.0 2.

Grey areas indicate non-assigned code points (PDF) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F U+1CDx ᳐ ᳑ ᳒ ᳓ ᳔ ᳕ ᳖ ᳗ ᳘ ᳙ ᳚ ᳛ ᳜ ᳝ ᳞ ᳟ U+1CEx ᳠ ᳡ ᳢ ᳣ ᳤ ᳥ ᳦ ᳧ ᳨ ᳩ ᳪ ᳫ ᳬ ᳭ ᳮ ᳯ U+1CFx ᳰ ᳱ ᳲ ᳳ ᳴ ᳵ ᳶ ᳷ ᳸ ᳹ Notes 1. As of Unicode version 10.0 2. Grey areas indicate non-assigned code points Devanagari keyboard layouts [ ].

One can use 'अक्षरांतरण' () or 'मराठी लिपी' () typing options to search or edit articles as shown in this video clip; One can click on the ' cc to change the subtitle languages to Marathi, English, Sanskrit, Kokani, Ahirani languages. The operating system includes two different for Devanagari: one is much like INSCRIPT/KDE Linux, the other is a phonetic layout called 'Devanagari QWERTY'. Eenie Meenie Sean Kingston Feat Justin Bieber Mp3 Free Download on this page. Any one of Unicode fonts input system is fine for Indic language Wikipedia and other wikiprojects, including Hindi, Bhojpuri, Marathi, Nepali Wikipedia.

Some people use. Majority uses either or input facility provided on Wikipedia. On Indic language wikiprojects Phonetic facility provided initially was java-based later supported by Narayam extension for phonetic input facility. Currently Indic language Wiki projects are supported by, that offers both phonetic keyboard (Aksharantaran, Marathi: अक्षरांतरण, Hindi: लिप्यंतरण, बोलनागरी) and (Marathi: मराठी लिपी).

The operating system supports several for Devanagari, including Harvard-Kyoto,, Bolanagari and phonetic. See also [ ].

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