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Direct link to this description On several accounts the city of Bristol has claims of a superior kind on the attention of the historian, and the topographer. Though not probably the most ancient, it is certainly one of the most important cities in the empire, and was long reckoned second only to the metropolis in a commercial point of view. The singularity of its situation on the borders of two extensive counties, in fact, standing both in Somersetshire and Gloucestershire, yet strictly belonging to neither, seated on seven hills, surrounded with some of the most delightful scenery the country can boast, being the great emporium of trade for the western counties, and the share it has had in all the great events of our history, are circumstances that have often excited the interest and roused the curiosity of the annalist and tourist. It has been said by some that Bristol was founded by Brennus, the supposed first king of the Britons, about three hundred and eighty years before Christ; a notion which has derived some support from the appearance of two statues, said to be those of Brennus, and his brother Belinus, on the south side of St. Gildas, a British monk of the sixth century, certainly mentions Brito, or Bristol, in his list of fortified and eminent British cities, in the year 430, when the Romans abandoned our island. Nennius, in his catalogue annexed to his History of Britain, which comes down to the eighth century, also enumerates Caer-Brito, the ancient British name for this place, among the twenty-eight famous cities of Gildas. These testimonies, however, have reference only to the ancient city of the Britons.
At present, however, for extent, population, and trade, Bristol is the most considerable place in the West of England. In these respects it takes place of all other cities in England, London excepted. The present name is thought by some to be derived from its Saxon appellation, Brightstow; that is, 'a place of famous beauty.'
The ancient Britons called this place 'Caer Oder Nante Badon; 'which by some authors is supposed to signify 'the city of Oder, in the Valley of Badon by Mr. Dyer, in a late publication, 'The Great Water, or Water Border City, in the Valley of Bath.' Bristol is situated on both sides of the River Avon; was made an independent county by King Edward III. In consequence of which it is not included in any of the circuits, but holds its own assizes and sessions. Prior to the Norman Conquest, the ancient history of Bristol is very obscure; nor have we any authentic particulars, except that one Hardinge, a natural son of the then king of Denmark, was governor of Brightstow, in the reign of Edward the Confessor; and that it was from this place that Harold sailed, in 1063, when he went to put a stop to the inroads made by the Welch on the borders of the kingdom. At the death of the Conqueror, when Geoffry, Bishop of Constance, with his nephew, Robert Mowbray, Earl of Northumberland, rebelled against William Rufus, they made this city their head-quarters, and the Castle became the depot of all the plunder they collected in the country around.
According to Camden, the Castle was founded by Robert Earl of Gloucester, who also added to it a magnificent palace and tower, and encompassed the whole with walls. William of Worcester, who surveyed this castle, about the 14th century, informs us, that, it was 540 feet long, 300 feet broad, and stood on an area of three acres of ground. The castle was annexed to the city by a charter of King Charles I. In 1629, and soon after purchased by the mayor and burgesses. In the reign of king Stephen, when the Empress Maud landed in England, and raised an army against that monarch, Robert, Earl of Gloucester, built a castle here, and fortified it for that Princess. In the course of the wars, being closely besieged, she took shelter here, but her stay was short; for Stephen following her with a considerable army, she fled to Gloucester, and afterwards to several other places, till, having collected a powerful army, she gave the command to the Earl of Gloucester, who, after an obstinate resistance, took Stephen prisoner, at the castle of Lincoln, and conveyed him to Bristol, where he was confined upwards of nine months in the Castle.
During the civil wars, in the reign of Charles I. The castle was alternately in the hands of the King and Parliament; but it was at length totally demolished by Cromwell, and several handsome streets have been made on the spot where it stood; one of which, to perpetuate its remembrance, is called Castle-street.
The ground-plot of this city is nearly circular. It is divided into two parts by the river Avon, over which there is a handsome stone-bridge. The part on the Gloucestershire side is four miles and a half in circumference, and that on the Somersetshire, two miles and a half; so that the whole circumference of the city is seven miles. In ancient times it was enclosed by walls.
The gates of Bristol, which were fourteen or sixteen in number are mostly demolished; amongst which was Newgate, now the city gaol for felons and debtors. This prison has been enlarged and improved by act of parliament: it has a handsome chapel, and an ordinary to officiate in it. Temple-gate, a modern and very noble triumphal arch of stone, with two posterns, remains; as do also Bridewell-gates, which include a large well-built prison on each side of the way, the city prison for commitment and correction. John's-gate is remarkable for two ancient statues of the Kings Belinus and Brennus, the fabulous founders of the city, and for having upon it the steeple of the adjacent church, and on that a stone spire; the whole structure is 150 feet from the ground. A part of the city wall, nearly half a mile in length, remains on the Somersetshire side. The more ancient streets of Bristol are in general narrow, and the greater part of the houses, like those in London before the year 1666, are built with the upper stories projecting beyond the lower. They are also crowded close together, and many of them five or six stories high.
The streets formed of late years are spacious, well paved, and contain very handsome buildings: and every opportunity of widening the streets is taken, by pulling down old houses, and erecting such as are both ornamental and convenient in their place. Bristol has been a bishopric ever since the general dissolution of religious houses, in the reign of Henry VIII, the present cathedral having been formerly the church of the abbey of St. It was one of the mitred abbeys, its head sitting in parliament as a spiritual lord, and exercising all other episcopal offices. The Cathedral, or College, as it is called by the inhabitants, was first built and endowed by Lord Fitz-harding, towards the latter end of the reign of King Stephen, and at the dissolution its revenues were applied for the maintenance of a bishop, dean, six prebendaries, a chancellor, vicar, choristers, and other officers. It is a venerable Gothic structure, dedicated to the Holy Trinity, and situated at a place called College-green. The front is adorned with the statues of several of our kings. Though not large, it has many beauties of Gothic architecture within, and a noble organ.
It is adorned with paintings, painted windows, and several elegant monuments, ancient and modern. Behind the cathedral is a cloister, in which are the entrances to the library and bishop’s palace. There remains, a little to the west of the church, a most beautiful Gothic gateway, which has four statues on each side the gatehouse, of King Henry, &c. Over the gate, on the north side, is the following ancient inscription, entire, and perfectly legible: Ilex Henricus secundus, & Dominus Robertus, filius, Hardingi, filii Regis Daciae, hujus monasterii, primi fundatores extiternut. Exclusive of the cathedral, here are eighteen parish churches, and several very handsome meeting-houses for Protestant dissenters.
Among the parish churches, that which claims preeminence of the rest, is St. Mary Redcliff, which is situated without the walls, and was built in the reign of Henry VI. By William Canyngs, one of the aldermen of the city, it is a magnificent structure of Gothic architecture, and the workmanship is so beautiful, the roof so ingeniously vaulted with stone, and the tower so lofty, that it may justly be esteemed one of the finest parish churches in the kingdom. It stands on the brow of a hill, and has a handsome ascent to it by stone steps.
The original foundation of this edifice was laid by Simon de Burton, in the year 1294, it was afterwards, however, taken down and rebuilt, on the same site, by William Canyngs, and completed by his grandson, of the same name, who was an eminent merchant of Bristol, of which city he was five times mayor. He died the 7th of November, 1474, and was buried in the south end of the cross aisle of this church, where are two monuments erected to his memory. — On one side of the church he is represented in the habit of a magistrate, to imply his having served in the city as mayor; and on the other he appears in ecclesiastical robes, having in the latter part of his life entered into holy orders. One of the inscriptions is in Latin, the other in English. Here is also a monument erected to the memory of Sir William Penn, Knt. Vice-admiral of England, and father of the great William Penn, one of the heads of the people called.
Quakers, who was a native of Bristol. Upon the tower there was formerly aspire of great height, which, in the year 1396, was partly thrown down by lightning, and never rebuilt. The ground plan of the church forms a cross.
It consists of a middle and two side aisles. Near the centre of the middle aisle, on the south side, opposite the pulpit, is erected a throne, on which the mayor and corporation are seated when they, in their robes of office, go in procession to this church to hear divine service, once every year, on Whit-Sunday, on which day an ancient custom is continued of strewing the pavement of the church with rushes. The pillars which support the roof are very lofty, and beautifully wrought into the most delicate mouldings. The roof is all of stone, abounding in ornaments and carved work. The altar is very elegant, and richly decorated. Over it are three capital paintings, by Hogarth.
The largest and middle picture represents Christ’s Ascension; the one on the left-hand is the High Priest with others sealing the tomb: and the other, on the right, the Women coming to look for the body of Christ, and the Angel who tells them 'He is not here, but risen.' In the centre compartment of the altar, is a picture of our Saviour restoring to life the daughter of Jairus, painted by Mr. Fresham, of the Royal Academy, at the request of his uncle, Sir Clifton Wintringham, Bart., one of his majesty’s physicians, who presented it to this church. It was in a room over the porch, at the north entrance of the church, that the celebrated Chatterton asserted he had found the poetical manuscripts of Thomas Rowley and others, written in the 15th century, which he transcribed and published at different periods.
These beautiful poems are now, by the best judges, determined to have been the productions of Chatterton himself, and as such, the most extraordinary efforts of early poetical genius known, considering the circumstances, situation, and youth of the author. Thomas Chatterton was born at Bristol, the 20th of November, 1752; he was a posthumous child. His father was master of the charity school in Pill-street. In 1760, he was admitted into Colston’s Blue-coat School, which he left on the 1st of August, 1767, and was immediately taken into the office of an attorney, whose office-hours were from seven in the morning till eight in the evening. He continued in this situation till April 1770, when he went to London, where, a victim of neglect and extreme distress, he destroyed himself on the 21st of August following.
All Saints’ church is a beautiful structure, the steeple of which, though not so large, nearly resembles that of St. Mary-le-bow, in Cheapside, London. The church of St. Mark, opposite the cathedral, was anciently a collegiate church, founded by the Gaunts, whose tombs are to be seen in the aisle. It is the mayor’s chapel, has a fine organ, and a curious Gothic window next the street.
Nicholas church, at the bridge, is one of the finest modern rooms that can be seen, of 100 feet long, 55 broad, and without a pillar. In its tower is a deep and musical peal of eight bells, which are rung every Thursday evening at eight o’clock. On the tower is a beautiful spire of considerable height. Christ church is remarkable for its lofty spire, and musical peal of ten bells. Stephen’s, in Clare-street, has a curious Gothic tower and pinnacles, 150 feet high; its furniture, pews, pulpit, altar-piece, and even doors, are all of mahogany. Michael’s is entitled to notice for its elegant simplicity. There is a very fine organ at St.
Thomas’s church, worthy of notice. In Temple-street is a church, remarkable for its tower leaning on one side, which is attributed to a defect in the original construction, not observed by the architect. When the bells are rung it moves, as Camden expresses it, hue et itlluc, here and there. The parishes of St. James having formerly but one church, which was insufficient for the accommodation of the inhabitants, an act of parliament was obtained in 1751, empowering trustees to divide the two parishes and erect a new church. The money for defraying the expenses of this building was raised by voluntary subscription; their Bishop, the learned Rev.
Joseph Butler, contributing 400l. For that purpose. The first stone of this edifice was laid with great ceremony on the 3rd of March, 1752, and under it was placed several pieces of his late majesty’s coin. On the upper part of the stone was a Latin inscription, of which the following is a translation: — 'This church, Sacred to the All-mighty and All-gracious God, and the salvation of frail sinners, was erected by the public piety. Yet, Far be it from us to conceal, among obscure names, The reverend Father in God - Joseph Butler, Late Bishop of Bristol, who Consecrated to this pious use Four hundred pounds.' This church is a very neat and handsome structure, being elegantly finished, both within and without; but it does not at present contain any thing that merits particular notice, except having a very handsome and good organ.
Id the city of Bristol are 17 parishes, 18 churches, and five chapels; and in the suburbs two churches and one chapel of the established religion, in all 26; and nearly as many meeting-houses and chapels for dissenters. On viewing the churches in Bristol, we are naturally led to make one observation, which particularly redounds to the honour of the citizens; we mean the neatness observed in these sacred structures, and the great care that is taken in preserving the monuments, and the inscriptions on them, to the memory of the dead. The most distinguished buildings, exclusive of the churches, are the following: — Towards the lower end of Broad-street is the Guildhall, where the business of the corporation is transacted. It is a very handsome and convenient edifice; and here the sessions are held for the city and county.
There are rooms also for the sheriff’s court, and a hall called St. George’s Chapel, in which the city officers are annually appointed, and the county members chosen. The whole building is of free-stone: having the front adorned with a statue of Charles II., from whom the city received its last charter of incorporation. At the upper end of Broad-street, and the corner of Corn-street, is another handsome building, called the Council-house, where the mayor, or in his absence, one of the aldermen, sits every day (Sundays excepted) to transact business, attended by the town-clerk, and other proper officers.
The apartments are ornamented with some fine portraits of royal and other august and honourable personages. The exchange is an extensive, handsome, and convenient building, well adapted to all the purposes of commerce. The act for building it was obtained in 1733, after which a subscription was set on foot, and the foundation laid on the 19th of March, 1741. In the first stone was a Latin inscription, of which the following is a translation: — 'In the reign of George II., the pious, prosperous, august vindicator of Liberty and Commerce, both at home and abroad, Henry Combe, Mayor, A. 1741, laid the first stone of this edifice, erected by the vote of the citizens, and at the public expense.' This beautiful edifice, which was opened on the 23rd of September, 1743, is esteemed the most complete of its kind in Europe. Its front is 110 feet, depth 148, and it is capable of containing 1, 440 persons.
The place for the merchants is a peristyle of the Corinthian order, 80 feet in breadth, and 90 in length. The whole building, throughout, is of stone. The places between the capitals of the columns and pilasters, in the front, are filled with festoons, which represent Great Britain and the four quarters of the world, with the chief products and manufactures of every country. Before the Exchange, and on the Tolzey, are some of the old brass pillars, used for transacting business before the exchange was built.
The Post-office is an elegant and convenient stone structure, at the west, of the Exchange. Its annual revenue is upwards of 10, 000l. The Assembly-room, in Princes-street, for balls and concerts, is about 90 feet long, and a lofty highly- finished receptacle. It is of stone; has a magnificent front, and a rustic basement, supporting double pillars of the Corinthian order, crowned by an open pediment, under which is this inscription: 'Curas Cithara tollit.' It is conducted by a master of the ceremonies, distinct from the Hot-Wells.
The Merchants’-hall, in the same street, is a capacious structure of stone, enclosed by a grand iron palisade, and with a curious front. It consists of a suite of magnificent rooms, and has one of the first halls in England. The Coopers’-hall, in King-street, has a very superb front, with four noble columns of the Corinthian order, an attic story, and lofty pediment, well deserving the attention of a stranger. Merchant Taylor’s-hall, in Broad-street, is a freestone building, nearly 70 feet long, and of proportionable breadth.
The Theatre in King-street, is a perfect model of elegance and convenience: the internal part round the pit is semicircular; and Bristol had the honour of leading this fashion in England. —The carving, gildings, &c., which are very simple and correct, have a very good effect.
Plays are acted in the summer season only, by the King’s servants from both the London houses. There are many genteel houses of entertainment in every part of the city, with neat walks and gardens, and very good accommodations. Convenience and elegance are now attended to at Bristol, and every reasonable gratification which can be desired is here afforded.
The City Library, in King-street, is a handsome stone building, with literary emblems in the front. It contains a copious and excellent collection of the best ancient; and modern authors, and is continually augmenting, by a great number of annual subscribers. The Quay is upwards of a mile in extent or circuit, reaching from St. Giles’s-bridge down to the mouth of the Frome, and up the old Avon to Bristol-bridge; being one uninterrupted spacious wharf of hewn stone, having sufficient depth of water before it for ships of the greatest burthen, and fully laden, to come close to the walls and discharge their cargoes. It has different names, as the Tontine-quay, Broad-quay, the Gibb, Mud-dock, the Grove, and the Back. At this quay a considerable number of ships lie at all times of the year, which make a pleasing appearance; and the large quantities of different merchandise seen on the wharfs, prove the very great trade of the port of Bristol. On the western side of the Mud-dock is the great crane, erected on fourteen pillars, cased with iron, by the ingenious Mr.
Padmore; a curious piece of mechanism, and worthy of observation. Cranes of the same internal construction are erected in proper situations for loading and unloading, which are all numbered, for the more readily finding the subjacent vessels. The merchants of Bristol had for many years contemplated the formation of the river Avon into a floating harbour, where the vessels might constantly ride, without being liable to sustain any damage from the revolution of the tides, and the resting in low water in hard and disadvantageous places: in 1803, they applied to Parliament for liberty to turn the course of the Avon from above the Hot-Wells, through the meadow land on the Somersetshire side, thence again to join its original direction a little below Totterdown. This plan, evidently formed with much spirit, for the public utility, met with warm discussions from the citizens, according as they were swayed by interest, persuaded of its benefit, or prejudiced against it. However, the Company of Merchants, in its favour, having procured parliamentary sanction to prosecute their measures, which they sanguinely asserted would improve the port and harbour to a very great and conspicuous degree, the new river was begun in 1804, and about five years afterwards it was finished, so as to admit a passage for shipping. The Avon and Frome, being formed into large docks of water, considerably facilitate trade, as vessels can now proceed on their voyages when the tides are at neap, which otherwise necessarily occasioned delay; and by the same means ships of great burthen, instead of remaining at Kingroad until the tides rise high enough to admit them, are received into an immense basin, called Cumberland Basin, near the Hot-Wells; and here they lie safely, and unload with ease.
Its convenience for trade is every way apparent. As ships are obliged to pass through St. Giles’s-bridge, the magistrates have appointed officers to draw it up on their approach, who are paid from the city chamber. Queen’s-square is a very handsome place, being surrounded with good buildings, inhabited by gentry and merchants. The houses are fronted partly with brick, and partly with stone, and the square is reckoned larger than any in London, Lincoln’s Inn-fields excepted. On the north side is the Custom-house, and the area is laid out in grass plats and gravel walks, with a double row of trees all round.
In the centre is a curious equestrian-statue of King William, in copper, executed by the famous Rysbrack. Among the numerous charitable institutions in this city, we shall notice the following, as being the most remarkable: Queen Elizabeth’s hospital, which, before the dissolution of monasteries, was a collegiate church, founded by Sir Henry Gaunt, but afterwards converted into an hospital by J. Carre, a wealthy citizen, who is supposed to have lived in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, and to have given her name to this hospital. In the year 1706 it was rebuilt, and farther endowed with contributions, and is now large enough for one hundred boys: they are taught reading, writing, arithmetic, navigation, &c.; and when qualified to go out, they are at liberty to choose a master, either for land or sea service, and have eight guineas given with them as an apprentice fee. Six of these boys, who are upon Mr.
Colston’s establishment, have ten pounds given with each. The mayor and aldermen are the visitors of this seminary, and by them the treasurer is chosen. The boys maintained by this charity are dressed nearly in the same manner as those of Christ’s hospital in London. Austin’s Back, is Colston’s-hospital, founded by Edward Colston, Esq. For one hundred boys, who are taught and maintained in this hospital seven years; at the expiration of which they are put out apprentices in the same manner as those in Queen Elizabeth’s hospital.
The master is allowed 1,000l. A year for the maintenance of these boys. The founder purchased lands in several parts of Somersetshire, and settled the revenues on this foundation. The Merchants’ Company are the receivers of these rents, and also inspectors of the charity. Eighty of these boys must be the sons of freemen of Bristol, but the other twenty are from different parts of the county.
They are dressed like the boys in Queen Elizabeth’s-hospital, except their caps, which are black; and the lining of their blue coals is of an orange colour, whereas that of the former is white. Michael’s-hill is another hospital, founded by the aforesaid Edward Colston, Esq.
The front and sides of the building are faced with free-stone, and contain twenty-four apartments, for twelve men and twelve women, who have each an allowance of three shillings a week, and twenty-four sacks of coals a year; the elder brother has six shillings a week; and the governor has an apartment and garden, with a handsome allowance. There is a neat chapel belonging to the hospital, where prayers are read twice a day, except when service is performed at St. Michael’s church, and every pensioner is obliged to attend. — This building cost the donor 25, 000l. In Temple-street is a large school and dwelling- house, built and endowed by the before-mentioned Mr. Colston, who purchased the ground for it in 1696. Here forty boys are taught reading, writing, and arithmetic, and clothed in short grey habits, with caps and bands; but their parents find them necessaries.
The master’s salary is paid out of the vestry of the parish, by persons who have the entire management of the school. Peter’s-hospital, which was opened on the 29th of June, 1738, is an infirmary for the sick and distressed poor of the city, established on the same plan as those of London and Westminster. This useful charity has been supported by very liberal contributions.
One of its most distinguished benefactors was the late John Elbridge, esq., one of the comptrollers of the customs here; who, besides several other charitable donations, bequeathed 5, 000l. To this infirmary. The same gentleman likewise built and endowed a charity-school, on St. Michael’s-hill, for educating and clothing a number of girls, the children of poor parents.
The Bristol infirmary, in Marlborough-street, St. James’s, is an extensive building, and liberally supported. The charity for the relief and support of the blind, is particularly entitled to notice. Here is a Free Grammar-school, where youth are instructed in classical learning, and qualified for the university. Bristol-bridge, first built more than five hundred years ago, and rebuilt in 1768, is over the old stream of the Avon. It consists of three wide and lofty arches; has a fine stone balustrade on each side, seven feet high; raised foot-ways chained in; two domes at each end, formerly used for toll-houses, and is well lighted with lamps.
The toll has been for some years discontinued. All the avenues to the bridge were, on its erection, widened, and nowly built; and it presents an agreeable prospect of the new buildings in Bridge-street, St. Nicholas church, and part of the river and quay: and, farther on, rising above the river, is Redcliffe-parade, a very neat range of handsome houses, from whence there is a most extensive and delightful view of great part of the city, the shipping, and country adjacent. Over the river Frome is the draw-bridge, raised by a curious piece of mechanism.
From hence the ships of the quay appear as trees in a forest. Bristol is well supplied with good spring-water, from public pumps and conduits; the most remarkable of which is the conduit in Temple-street, which is of stone, and has upon it a noble statue of Neptune, much admired. The whole is enclosed by an iron palisade. The houses have all got pumps supplied from hard springs; but the soft water is generally such as falls from the heavens, and is collected in leaden reservoirs under ground, to which it is conveyed from the tops of buildings by shoots or gutters. There are vaults or common sewers (here called gautes) throughout the whole city; and perhaps there is not a house which has not communication with the main sewers. Heavy carts are not admitted into this city, for fear of damaging the arches of the vaults and gutters that are made under ground for carrying off the soil into the rivers; so that the constant draught here is by sledges, which renders the pavement in the highway of the streets exceeding slippery.
The city is divided into twelve wards, each of which has an alderman, one chief constable, and twelve, others; a night-constable, watchmen, scavengers, lamp-lighters, round-houses, &c. The guardhouse, or barracks for soldiers, is in Wine-street. The corporation have three processions in a year, viz, at Michaelmas, when the mayor is sworn into office; 29th of May, and 5th of November, when the eldest scholar of the city grammar-school, standing on a brass pillar in the street, at the Tolzey, commemorates the deliverance in a Latin oration to the mayor, who attends to him at the council-house door; and, when the declaimer dismounts, rewards him with a piece or pieces of gold, as Mr. Mayor may think proper; but the concourse of people is always so great, that very little is to be heard.
One of the two judges who go the western circuit, comes in the autumn of every year to Bristol, to hear and determine, at the Guildhall, lawsuits entirely respecting civil causes arising in Bristol, as a city and county; also, the mayor, recorder, and aldermen, hold an assize, or general gaol-delivery, of oyer and terminer, in the same hail, once in every year, most commonly in March, for the trial of capital offences committed in the jurisdiction of the city and county of Bristol, either by land or water. And the mayor and aldermen, with the town-clerk, (who presides as judge) hold a quarter-sessions for trying less criminal causes; likewise, a court of conscience, or request, is held every Monday, for the recovery of debts under the sum of forty shillings. Besides these, two sheriffs hold a pie-powder court every year in autumn, under the piazza, in a street called the Old- market. Here are upwards of thirty other corporations, of which the society of Merchant-Venturers is the most respectable, consisting of some of the principal gentlemen of the city and its environs, and of the neighbouring nobility; generally of the prime minister, or one of the secretaries of state; and it has been honoured by the names of some of the royal family. — Notwithstanding its name, it is not merely a trading society, but formed for the promotion of the trade, commerce, and improvement of the city, and always acts in conjunction with the corporation in carrying on these great ends. The Merchant-Tailors, Mererrs, &c., are considerable bodies of people, and maintain various charities. The government of this city is administered by a Mayor, who is a great officer (and before the American war had 1, 500l.
To support the dignity of his office; his salary is now fixed at 1,000l. ), and is seldom or never seen in the streets, unless in his coach, during his mayoralty; twelve Aldermen, all justices of the peace; two Sheriffs, each of whom is allowed 400l. During his office; twenty-eight Common-Council, Town-Clerk, Deputy Town-Clerk, Chamberlain, Vice-Chamberlain, clerks of the court of conscience, under-sheriff, sword-bearer, &c. There are other officers subject to the corporation: eight serjeants at mace; two coroners, criers of the court, water-bailiffs, quay-masters, common crier, school-masters, clerks of the markets, exchange-keeper, club-men, messengers, beadles, a city-marshal, and a good band of musicians; all of whom have their proper gowns and dresses, and precede the corporation in processions, which they always make in a number of their own carriages. There are two fairs usually held in Bristol: the one on the 1st of March, in Temple-street; the other on the 1st of September, in St. James’s church-yard, &c. At this last there is generally a large number of horses of all kinds for sale, which seldom continues more than two or three days; at present, the principal traders who frequent these fairs are the clothiers, either to sell, or receive orders for their goods; also dealers in tanned leather, there being more of this article sold during those periods at the Back Hall than at any other fair in England.
Besides these, there are hardwaremen from Birmingham, Wolverhampton, Sheffield, &c., and some cotton stocking-makers from Tewksbury, &c.; the rest consist of shops and stands, wherein millinery wares, toys, or some trifling articles, are exposed for sale by the town's-people. There are also two principal markets for butchers’ meat, poultry, butter, cheese, bacon, eggs, and all kinds of vegetables, &c. The principal Market-place has a grand entrance from High-street, of stone, consisting of a lofty gate, two posterns, and a gate-house, crowned by a turret. The market consists principally of rows for butchers, and three piazzas for poultry, cheese, butter, &c., of which the middle is very noble; there are also convenient stalls for vegetables.
The market, for its construction, and abundant supply of all sorts of provisions, on market-days, can be scarcely equalled. — St James’s-market, in Union-street, and the Welch-market, on the Back, are very neat and convenient, and well supplied with fish of every kind in season; the latter is a curiosity, being square, having its roof supported only by sixteen pillars, an iron palisade round it, and a turret on the top. The merchants trade with less dependence on London, than any other town in Britain. Whatever exports they make, they are able to bring the full returns back, and dispose of them at their own port; and as they have a great trade abroad, so they have always sufficient buyers at home for their returns.
— The shopkeepers are generally wholesale men, and employ carriers to all the principal towns, even from Southampton to the banks of the Trent; and by sea, and the rivers Wye and Severn, they have the whole trade of South Wales, and part of North Wales, to themselves. Their trade with Ireland is very great, from this country they import tallow, linen, woollen, and bay yarn. Their trade to the West Indies, of which they were some of the first discoverers and adventurers, is very considerable. Their West-India ships sail and arrive in fleets. They carry on the Dutch, Hamburgh, Norway, Eastland, and Russian commerce.
They send ships to Newfoundland and the Mediterranean, and import great quantities of fruit, wine, and oil. The foreign trade of Bristol has, however, of late years, suffered some decrease, from the removal of part of it to Liverpool, which enjoys some superior advantages as a sea-port.
Although the chief dependence of Bristol is upon its foreign trade, yet there are almost all kinds of business carried on in this city; and in the shops are seen as great a display and choice of every sort of goods, as is to be met with any where in the kingdom, and which are sold at as cheap rates. There are many very capital manufactories here, and in the neighbourhood, which, by reason of the great plenty and cheapness of coal and other fuel, with the easiness of land and water carriage, the proprietors are enabled to sell on as low terms as can be done elsewhere. The brass-works at Baptist’s Mills, at the distance of about one mile to the north-east of the city, situate on the river Frome, claim our attention; for this was the first place where brass was made in England, and the original workmen were brought over from Holland for the purpose. The quantity made here is prodigious; it is drawn into wire, or formed into what is called battery, for the Guinea trade, and other purposes, from whence it is sent to London, Liverpool, and every part of the kingdom. Another work of the same kind was also carried on at Warmley, about five miles from Bristol, but which has been discontinued some time.
There are likewise several large works for smelting copper, at Crew’s-Hole, and other places on the banks of the Avon, between Bristol and Bath, and some others in Kingswood. There are also three iron foundries, in the parish of St. Philip and Jacob, where cannon, &c., are cast, and where is a steam-engine for boring them, when run in the solid.
In the same parish are likewise very considerable lead-works, where the lead is smelted for the ore, and wrought into milled lead, or cast into sheets, &c., and adjoining thereto, the same proprietors have erected a white-lead house of great extent, where they make large quantities, as also of red-lead; and here it may not be amiss to remark, that Bristol is famous for making small lead shot, of which vast quantities used to be exported to America, &c.; this article, on account of its roundness and colour, being preferred abroad to that made in any other place. The returns made here, in the glass manufactory, are prodigious: great numbers of bottles are used for sending the water of St. Vincent’s spring to all parts of England and the world. Here are also upwards of 20 large sugar-houses, several turpentine, sulphur, and vitriol-houses; considerable manufactures of woollen stuffs, shalloons, duroys, plush, serges, silk, lace, broad-cloth, and sail-cloth; also several potteries, where they make the finest queen’s-ware, and brown stone-ware, equal to any other in the kingdom. The distilleries are carried on in a very extensive line, the demand for spirits for the African trade and internal consumption being very great; the excise duties thereon, paid to government, amount to several thousand pounds a year. On the banks of the Avon, nearly opposite the Hot-well-house, a large building is erected, wherein is a curious mill for spinning cotton, upon the principle of Arkwright’s, but greatly improved: a spring of pure water, that gushes directly from out of the rock, works this mill, and from thence runs immediately into the river. All kinds of persons are at liberty to exercise their trades and callings here, without molestation from the corporation, and may purchase the freedom of the city for a moderate sum.
The inhabitants of Bristol are from almost all parts of the world. Here are people of different countries, languages, and religions; so that their general characteristic cannot well be given. Its gentry, merchants, and capital traders, live in as elegant style as any in the kingdom. Its shopkeepers are remarkable for their activity and industry; but they are abrupt in their behaviour, which has obtained for them a very unfavourable designation.
Literature is now much cultivated in Bristol, and it abounds with men of talent in all the liberal professions. The increase of this city, on all sides, by its new buildings and improvements, is scarcely credible. Upwards of 8, 000 houses have been built on new foundations since the commencement of this century, and it is continually increasing. The internal and trading parts of the city are partly antique, high, irregular, and projecting, and built of wood and plaster; many houses, however, and several entire streets, are elegantly built of brick and stone; all other kinds of building being now prohibited here by act of parliament. The heart of the city was formerly rather close, but the streets have been lately much widened and improved, and several have been totally rebuilt. Its external parts are very spacious and agreeable, elegantly built, and inhabited by merchants, gentry, and people out of business.
There are parades, and convenient and agreeable places to walk in, at almost every part of the town: particularly Redcliff-parade, which commands a pleasant prospect of part of the city and harbour. The city is paved, and lighted with gas. The city of Bristol has recently undergone several alterations and improvements. The avenues of trees on the College Green are cut down, and the green surrounded by a light and ornamental railing. A substantial iron railing is also erected on the banks of the river Frome. The introduction of gas has also met with much favour, and promises to become an object of general utility.
Three of the new places of worship, constructed for the use of Dissenters, have each a front composed of free-stone. On the 29th of February, 1820, the foundation-stone of a new literary and philosophical foundation was laid with the usual formalities in Park-street. The procession that attended this ceremony was composed of the mayor and principal municipal officers.
This building will contain a spacious lecture-room, a laboratory, reading-rooms, &c. Bristol is also to be new paved with a quartzous sand-stone, with a ferruginous cement, lying in lamina, easily raised, which will never want the aid of gunpowder to divide it; squares easily with the hammer; and, if once well laid, ages will not mark its decay. It is commonly called Brandon-hill stone.