A Primer On Scientific Programming With Python 3rd Pdf Free 3,7/5 6516votes

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A Primer On Scientific Programming With Python 3rd Pdf Free

The lower-case 'a' and upper-case 'A' are the two case variants of the first letter in the. Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the that are in larger upper case (also uppercase, capital letters, capitals, caps, large letters, or more formally majuscule) and smaller lower case (also lowercase, small letters, or more formally minuscule) in the written representation of certain. The that distinguish between the upper and lower case have two parallel sets of letters, with each letter in one set usually having an equivalent in the other set.

A Primer On Scientific Programming With Python 3rd Pdf Free

Basically, the two case variants are alternative representations of the same letter: they have the same name and and will be treated identically when sorting in. Letter case is generally applied in a mixed-case fashion, with both upper- and lower-case letters appearing in a given piece of text. The choice of case is often prescribed by the of a language or by the conventions of a particular discipline. In, the upper case is primarily reserved for special purposes, such as the first letter of a or of a, which makes the lower case the more common variant in regular text. In some contexts, it is conventional to use one case only. For example, are typically labelled entirely in upper-case letters, which are easier to distinguish than the lower case, especially when space restrictions require that the lettering be small. In, on the other hand, letter case may indicate the relationship between objects, with upper-case letters often representing 'superior' objects (e.g.

X could be a containing the generic member x). Layout for type cases. The terms upper case and lower case can be written as two consecutive words, connected with a hyphen ( upper-case and lower-case), or as a single word ( uppercase and lowercase). These terms originated from the common layouts of the shallow called used to hold the for. Traditionally, the capital letters were stored in a separate shallow tray or 'case' that was located above the case that held the small letters. Majuscule ( or ), for, is technically any script in which the letters have very few or very short ascenders and descenders, or none at all (for example, the majuscule scripts used in the, or the ).

By virtue of their visual impact, this made the term majuscule an apt descriptor for what much later came to be more commonly referred to as uppercase letters. Minuscule refers to lower-case letters. The word is often spelled miniscule, by association with the unrelated word miniature and the prefix mini. This has traditionally been regarded as a spelling mistake (since minuscule is derived from the word minus ), but is now so common that some tend to accept it as a nonstandard or variant spelling. Miniscule is still less likely, however, to be used in reference to lower-case letters. Typographical considerations [ ] The of lower-case letters can resemble smaller forms of the upper-case glyphs restricted to the base band (e.g. 'C/c' and 'S/s', cf.

) or can look hardly related (e.g. 'D/d' and 'G/g').

Cyrillic script. Writing systems using two separate cases are bicameral scripts. Languages that use the,,,,,,,, and scripts use letter cases in their written form as an aid to clarity.

Other bicameral scripts, which are not used for any modern languages, are,, and. The has several variants, and there were attempts to use them as different cases, but the modern written does not distinguish case. Many other writing systems make no distinction between majuscules and minuscules – a system called unicameral script. This includes most and other non-alphabetic scripts. In scripts with a case distinction, lower case is generally used for the majority of text; capitals are used for capitalisation and.

(and particularly initialisms) are often written in, depending on. Capitalisation [ ]. Alternating all-caps and headline styles at the start of a report published in November 1919. (The event reported is 's of 's.) In English, a variety of case styles are used in various circumstances: Sentence case ' A mixed-case style in which the first word of the sentence is capitalised, as well as proper nouns and other words as required by a more specific rule.

This is generally equivalent to the baseline universal standard of formal English orthography. Title case (capital case, headline style) 'The Quick Brown Fox Jumps over the Lazy Dog' A mixed-case style with all words capitalised, except for certain subsets (particularly and short and ) defined by rules that are not universally standardised. The standardisation is only at the level of house styles and individual.

(See further explanation below at.) In, title case usually involves the capitalisation of all words irrespective of their. This simplified variant of title case is also known as start case or initial caps. (all uppercase) 'THE QUICK BROWN FOX JUMPS OVER THE LAZY DOG' A unicase style with capital letters only. This can be used in headings and special situations, such as for typographical emphasis in text made on a typewriter.

With the advent of the, the all-caps style is more often used for emphasis; however, it is considered poor by some to type in all capitals, and said to be tantamount to shouting. Long spans of Latin-alphabet text in all upper-case are harder to read because of the absence of the and found in lower-case letters, which can aid recognition.

In some cultures it is common to write family names in all caps to distinguish them from the given names, but this habit is frowned upon. [ ] [ ] ' The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog' Similar in form to capital letters but roughly the size of a lower-case 'x', small caps are technically variants of lower-case letters and can be used with regular caps in a mixed-case fashion. According to various typographical traditions, the height of small caps can be equal to or slightly larger than the of the typeface (the smaller variant is sometimes called petite caps and may also be mixed with the larger variant).

Small caps can be used for acronyms, names, mathematical entities, computer commands in printed text, business or personal printed stationery letterheads, and other situations where a given phrase needs to be distinguished from the main text. All lowercase 'the quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog' A unicase style with no capital letters. This is sometimes used for artistic effect, such as in poetry. Also commonly seen in computer commands, and in (avoiding the, to type more quickly). See also: Some case styles are not used in standard English, but are common in, product, or other specialised fields: 'TheQuickBrownFoxJumpsOverTheLazyDog' Spaces and are removed and the first letter of each word is capitalised.

If this includes the first letter of the first word ('CamelCase', 'PowerPoint', 'TheQuick.' , etc.), the case is sometimes called upper camel case (or, when written, 'CamelCase'), case or bumpy case. When, otherwise, the first letter of the first word is lowercase ('camelCase', 'iPod', 'eBay', etc.), the case is usually known as camelCase and sometimes as lower camel case.

This is the format that has become popular in the branding of products. 'The_quick_brown_fox_jumps_over_the_lazy_dog' Punctuation is removed and spaces are replaced by single. Normally the letters share the same case (e.g.

'UPPER_CASE_EMBEDDED_UNDERSCORE' or 'lower_case_embedded_underscore') but the case can be mixed, as in OCaml modules.. This may also be called ' pothole case,' especially in programming where this convention is often seen for variable naming. When all upper case, it may be referred to as 'SCREAMING_SNAKE_CASE'. (spinal-case, Train-Case, Lisp-case) e.g. 'The-quick-brown-fox-jumps-over-the-lazy-dog' As per snake_case above, except rather than underscores are used to replace spaces. If every word is capitalised, the style is known as Train-Case.

'tHeqUicKBrOWnFoXJUmpsoVeRThElAzydOG' Mixed case with no or significance to the use of the capitals. Sometimes only are upper-case, at other times upper and lower case are alternated, but often it is simply random. The name comes from the sarcastic or ironic implication that it was used in an attempt by the writer to convey their own coolness. (It is also used to mock the violation of standard English case conventions by marketers in the naming of computer software packages, even when there is no technical requirement to do so – e.g. ' naming of a windowing system.) Unit symbols in the metric system [ ]. #define toupper(c) (islower(c)?

(c) – 'a' + 'A': (c)) #define tolower(c) (isupper(c)? (c) – 'A' + 'a': (c)) This only works because the letters of upper and lower cases are spaced out equally. In ASCII they are consecutive, whereas with EBCDIC they are not; nonetheless the upper-case letters are arranged in the same pattern and with the same gaps as are the lower-case letters, so the technique still works. Some computer programming languages offer facilities for converting text to a form in which all words are capitalised. Calls this 'proper case'; calls it 'title case'. This differs from usual conventions, such as the English convention in which minor words are not capitalised. Demonstrating the use of a in front of divided upper and lower type cases at the in Carson, California, United States, North America.

Originally were written entirely in majuscule letters, spaced between well-defined upper and lower bounds. When written quickly with a, these tended to turn into rounder and much simpler forms. It is from these that the first minuscule hands developed, the and cursive minuscule, which no longer stayed bound between a pair of lines. These in turn formed the foundations for the script, developed by for use in the court of, which quickly spread across Europe. The advantage of the minuscule over majuscule was improved, faster readability. [ ] In, from dating before 79 CE (when it was destroyed) have been found that have been written in old, where the early forms of minuscule letters 'd', 'h' and 'r', for example, can already be recognised.

According to papyrologist, 'The theory, then, that the lower-case letters have been developed from the fifth century and the ninth century Carolingian minuscules seems to be wrong.' Both majuscule and minuscule letters existed, but the difference between the two variants was initially stylistic rather than orthographic and the writing system was still basically unicameral: a given handwritten document could use either one style or the other but these were not mixed. European languages, except for and Latin, did not make the case distinction before about 1300. [ ] The timeline of writing in Western Europe can be divided into four eras: [ ] • Greek majuscule (9th–3rd century BCE) in contrast to the Greek (3rd century BCE – 12th century CE) and the later Greek minuscule • (7th century BCE – 4th century CE) in contrast to the Roman uncial (4th–8th century CE),, and minuscule • majuscule (4th–8th century CE) in contrast to the (around 780 – 12th century) • majuscule (13th and 14th century), in contrast to the early Gothic (end of 11th to 13th century), Gothic (14th century), and late Gothic (16th century) minuscules.

Traditionally, certain letters were rendered differently according to a set of rules. In particular, those letters that began sentences or nouns were made larger and often written in a distinct script. There was no fixed capitalisation system until the early.

The eventually dropped the rule for nouns, while the German language kept it. [ ] Similar developments have taken place in other alphabets.

The lower-case script for the has its origins in the 7th century and acquired its quadrilinear form in the 8th century. Over time, uncial letter forms were increasingly mixed into the script. The earliest dated Greek lower-case text is the (MS 461) in the year 835.

The modern practice of capitalising the first letter of every sentence seems to be imported (and is rarely used when printing Ancient Greek materials even today).

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